ARC/ORNL 2018 High School Summer Math-Science-Technology Institute Final Presentations

Welcome >>Good morning. >>Good
morning.>>How is everyone this morning,
are you sleepy? Wonderful. Have you had a fun two weeks —
in one case one week?>>Okay there’s lots of
opportunities for you to come back. We are certainly
delighted to have you here today. I’m Marie west fall with ORAU
and the first thing we’re going to do is do what we always do at
ORAU is we’re going to give you a safety message, so you know
all the safety procedures, if anything happens which we don’t
expect it to, but just in case. In the unlikely event of an
emergency requiring the evacuation of this facility,
those of you sitting in the front of the auditorium should
exit immediately via the doors on the left and right sides of
the stage. Those of you in the back should evacuate via the
rear doors. Those on the left side should exit via the glass
lobby doors on the right. These are the doors through witch you
probably entered. Those on the right side should continue into
the lobby and straight ahead to the broad glass enclosed
corridor. There you may exit the building either to the left
or right. Should one or more of these exitways be blocked by
smoke or fire, please leave via the nearest alternate
route. Restrooms are located off the corridor to the left of
the lobby. Water fountains are located between the restrooms. Vending machines are located at
the end of the hall that parallels the auditorium wall on
your right. out of this auditorium. We’re going to begin this
morning with Dr. voz director of the goonk to everyone. I normally do these very
informally, but I understand there are live streaming —
they’re lifg streaming this so I’ve got to go on script this
morning. look very nice, all these suits
ties dressed up very well your parents would be very proud. So welcome everyone this week,
hope you had a good time I’m very happy to welcome you to the
final presentations and recognition for the Oakridge
science academy and the signs tawlg
institute I’d like to take the time to recognize the
participating students, teachers and welcome the mentors and
officials of ARC we really value our partnerships
with ARC and obviously Oakridge laboratory which we work very
closely with to provide this opportunity for the students and
the teachersles. Students and teachers you
represent the 29th year for the summer institute and the 10th year for the middle
school science academy. We have common goals for
students and teachers basically to motivate you to stay in STEM
professions we’re looking for STEM people our national
laboratories once you get through college that might be an
opportunity for you, keep that in mind. So that’s a common
goal for the program. Our goal for the teachers is basically to expand their knowledge in the
science fields and actually take it back and apply them back in
your classroom. At this time I want to welcome
Mr. Tym Thomas lairks regional
cochair, tym was sporn in as the Appalachian regional
Commissioner the 12th federal cochair on April 3rd this year. As federal cochair tym works
directly with ARC’s 13 member governors
their state alternates and program managers. Tym is more than 20 years
experience in public infrastructure, workforce
training, which is more heavily involved in regulatory issues.
He was previously the director of external and regulatory affairs
for swift and spaly. Tim has a bachelor’s degree from Murray
stateen Kentucky and a law degree from the University of
Louisville. Please join me in welcoming Mr.
Tim Thomas in the stage. Tim? ) It’s great to be here, Ian
assure you that so much. My office is in Washington, D.C.
but when I get to be out in the region amongst the people of Appalachia, it really makes my
day. The Appalachia regional
Commissioner commission as a partnership
between the federal and state governments the 13 states that touch upon the
Appalachian region. And our role as an economic development entity is why we are
here with you today, and why the ARC
has been a sponsor of this program since the year 2000. Each year ARC collaborates with
the Oakridge national laboratory to bring high school and middle school
students to our summer STEM programs for
students and teachers from the Appalachian region. Since 2000 when ARC became a
partner in this effort over 1100 participants have successfully
graduated from the program. Why do we do this? Because we are investing in the
future of Appalachia. And you are part of that future.
And we believe that helping today’s students become
interested in future studies and careers in science, technology, and math, will help
the region grow and thrive in the
years to come. Creating more opportunities for all of us.
And the journey does not end here today. If you a middle school
participant you can come back as a high school student. If you are a high school
student, the lab provides internship opportunities for
college students. And if perhaps you’re interested
in working at onl in the future
there are various career pathways that ur able to enter
into as an adult. For the teachers in the audience, please
share the knowledge you have obtained over the past two weeks
with other teachers in your school system. Today’s events
would not be possible if it weren’t for the hard work
of all of the participants and teachers. You have not only spent time
working on some really interesting and
exciting STEM related projects but I hope
you have made a few friends from the other part of the
Appalachian district during your time with this program and I
hope you’re able to keep touch with those friends in the
future. Remembering your days at Oakridge together. And I would note that it is a
lot easier to keep in touch with the friends you made at summer
camp today than when I was your age. You have social media and
text and emails and when I was your age it was pretty much you
wrote a letter or you made a phone call. And I was not allowed to make
too many long distance phone calls, but I wonder how many out
of even know what a long distance phone call is.
expensive. of you to keep this program
running. Please spread the word about the program to your
parents, your teachers, your friends, and your community. Teachers, we count on you to
recruit students and other teachers for next year’s
program. And to parents, thank you for
entrusting your children to us. And I would also like to extend
thanks to the staff of ORNL and ORAU,
especially, a special thanks to Jennifer, Marie, and pi, and to
the mentors for all of your work to make this program a success: On
behalf of the Appalachian regional
commission, congratulations on your hard work and on your
dedication to this program. We are looking forward to what the
future holds for all of you. And thank you for allowing me
the privilege of speaking to you today. Thank you for having us. ) to introduce David chim from
Oakridge laboratory he’s a communication director in his
job as communication director David is responsible for
internal and external communications, community relations, protocol visits with
ORNL. Mr. Chaim holds a bachelor’s degree in journal itch frp Connors college
in Ohio university. Hi, everybody. Hope you had a good camp, good
time, yes, nods, I’m amazed that you’re all awake at this hour.
I have a 12-year-old rising 7th grader and I have an 18-year-old
who just graduated from high school, who is going to study
mechanical engineering. And I’m really glad to see so
many students here and so many teachers every year, it’s really important at
Oakridge National Laboratory that we have folks like you that are interested in
science. That are interested in technology, and that are going
to pursue that while you’re students and
hopefully into college, and hopefully beyond, and maybe you’ll come work for us
some day. Oakridge is a really cool place, and I want to talk to you
briefly about where you’ve been, and why
you’re here, and what’s next. The laboratory kind of
illustrates how science works. You know, in the 1930s,
scientists were figuring out how the world works, they were
figuring out the periodic table. They were figuring out atoms. When I talk about an atom, does
any image come to mind? Maybe like a proton and neutron
and little bands around it, some heads are nodding. In the 1930s that’s not —
people didn’t know that. They didn’t confirm the neutron
until 1932. And scientists were working on
physics and working on chemistry and understanding the elements, and
in 1939, 1938 and 39, some scientists in
Germany, threw a neutron at a uraniumium
atom and it split in half and released a bunch of energy. And
that was unexpected. Typically, when you split an
element, it splits into sort of two chunks and one is a lot
bigger than other, like if you’re chipping off a rock and
you get a little shard of a rock. But it split just about evenly
in two and released all its energy and the chemists in Germany that did
this, Otto han and Fritz strategyson called a cleeg of their, lizameitner who was in
Sweden. What was happening in Germany in the 30s? Adolph Hitler was taking over. And scientists like lizameitner
had fled because of Jewish heritage because of the
persecution that they saw happening, and ot to Han who was a chemist said to Lisa
meitner who is a physicist, what’s happened
here, she said your result is correct, she walked out in the
woods and sat and thought bit. I love that this is a woman
theorist who figured out fission, who confirmed fission. She goes and walks in the snow she sits on a log with her
nephew ot to frisch and she said what if it’s this way, and they
thought bit, literally just thought about it, and they did
some calculations, and they told ot oto Hahn your experiment is
correct we’ve discovered nuclear fission and the word spread
through the scientific community around the world. And the
scientists were the ones who told the politicians we ought to
sdog about this. Because whoever can control this power is going to have an
inexhaustible just about source of energy and
they can also build a really big bomb. And the scientists are the ones
who went to the President and said
this is what we discovered. And the President started the
Manhattan project, and the military, and American industry, and
scientists came together in a way they never
have before, and they started the Manhattan project. To harness the atom, to build a
bomb. And the science was so new they
didn’t know what would work the best, so they built four plants
in Oakridge. They built Y12, to try to
generate yurm , the yurm stope that was uranium, and they built a series
of filters that would diffuse the gas through the filters to
capture uranium 235. And they built the S 50 plant to
do thermal diffusion. And they built the X 10 graph
it’s reactor to try to produce — see if you could produce plutonium from
the nuclear reactor. It was the first nuclear reactor that
operated continually. Less than a year before it
started, the very first nuclear reactor
at Chicago turned on for a few
minutes and turned off and they took it apart and that was it,
they just wanted to see fit would work, the Chicago pile.
And the graph it’s reactor, the X 10 site, became Oakridge
National Laboratory. And Oakridge National Laboratory
went on to study nuclear power, to produce
isotopes for medicine. If you have undergone cancer treatments, if your parents,
your grandparents, have been
diagnosed with radiological medicine or instruments, if they’ve received radio isotopes
to treat their cancer that work almost certainly traces back to
Oakridge National Laboratory. Oakridge National Laboratory began exploring materials to
sell what would work in a nuclear reactor. They began
exploring the effects of radiation on living systems. Came up with the safeguards,
came up with the environmental regulations. To protect the world from the chemicals and the radioactive
materials that were doing so much good,
but left waste behind that needed to be dealt with. we’ve 3D printed a car, an SUV,
a submarine, an excavator, it’s
just kind of crazy. We’ve made metal alloys that make your
vehicles run better, and lighter and safe you gas. How many of
you are driving now? Do you like things that save your gas
money? Yes, heads are nodding. in the world because you need
computers to take a lot of this data that
exists now and to make sense of it, because you can’t do it on a
slide rule like they did with the first nuclear reactor. The summit supercomputer that we just announced in June can do 200 trillion — 200 quad
rill oncalculations a second. Those numbers are too big for
me, so here’s how I think about it. There are 7 billion
people in the world, think about what you were
doing at the beginning of the school year. Last September. You got in your head how long
ago that was? Last September. If every person in the world
started doing one calculation per
second, 1 plus 1 equals 2, 2 plus 2 equals 4, 2
times 2 equals 4 , I won’t go much
beyond that because I’m just an old journalist. If every person in the world did
one calculation per second starting at the beginning of the school year,
right about now everyone, if you didn’t eat, you didn’t sleep,
you just did that, 24/7, you finished calculating
what summit can calculate in one second. The supercomputers are as big as
this room. And what we’re doing now is
trying to advance science that improves
the technology that you all use, the materials that we use to build
stuff, the medicines that we use to treat disease, the energy
that we use to keep the lights on, to power our industry, to
help our military, the nuclear Navy came out of Oakridge. The
aircraft carriers and submarines that keep us safe. We’re trying to make that
better. Because, as Mr. Thomas said, the
world is different now. I mean, he’s younger than me and I’m not
that old. And the world is radically different. Just in 10, 20, 30 years. China is rising. India is rising. We’re in a global economy, andst
you are going to keep America competitive. Whoever masters the materials, whoever leads in the technology,
is going to lead in economic competitiveness and in national
security. The Manhattan project was about making sure that our scientists and
engineers got there first. Who is going to get to quantum
computing first. Who is going to get to light
weighting materials that will allow you to take electronics
and just stick them on the wall where no one even notices them. That’s what’s next, and that’s
where I’ll leave my comments. You’re next. You guys are next. And your willingness to follow
where your curiosity leads you, and your willingness now to
discipline yourself to learn how to do science, and to learn how to do development is going
to dictate what happens in the future for our country, and for
the world. Take yourself seriously . Don’t let anyone say well,
you’re just a kid. You’re going to be grown before
I know it. Can I get an amen from the parents? And you teachers, let me thank you for what you do. I know you
don’t get paid much, I know you’ve got a bureaucracy wearing
you out, I know you’ve got smart
mouthy kids — none of these children I’m sure — I know
you’ve got parents that are criticizing you. I know you
have the pressure of standardized test scores. But thank you for being here,
and thank you for teaching students,
and thank you for loving those kids,
and giving them a place where they can learn, and sharing your
knowledge, and growing your own knowledge so you can be better. I’ll tell you, as the spokesman
for Oakridge National Laboratory that your success is directly linked
to our success. And whoever wins science, and
whoever wins technology, is going to lead in the world. And the last thing I’ll say to
you is we had a speaker at the lab recently, Thomas Friedman, who
writes for the New York Times, kind of writes books, kind of does whatever he
wants now, and he points out that the technology is changing
the world incredibly rapidly . That the world is changing
faster than we can kind of keep up. And technology is
making people mean, in some cases. You guys have grown up in a
world where you can keep track of your friends that you meet here through
social media, and you can also be experience
really ugly stuff through social media. Technology has an upside and a
down side. And as technology allows us to
reach around the world in an instant,
as technology allows bad people,
terrorists to use the extreme example, to
send a note to their followers on the other side of the world
that says go drive a van down the tower bridge in
London and kill people, that same
technology can be used to share knowledge, and to
share kindness and to share goodness. And why am I talking
about that in this discussion? Because as you pursue your
science and you pursue your technology, you guys are smart
kids. And as you do what you do,
Thomas Friedman said — and this is remarkable talking to a room
full of Ph.D. s at the lab — he said it’s
never been more important to follow the
golden rule. It’s never been more important that we have
strong communities and strong institutions of faith and civic
service. That we teach one another how
we’re supposed to behave, when our behavior can so instantly
reach so many people. You guys are leaders, if you’re
here. You’re the kind of people you want people to be. Thank you for your time here,
thank you teachers, Oakridge National Laboratory was thrilled
to have you here, and we certainly hope that you teachers come back and that
another group of students come back. You all come back if you
want to, if you’re allowed to, that’s Jim’s decision he decides
all that stuff. But thank you very much I’ll be
the looking forward to go your work,
and meeting some of you afterwards, but thank you very
much. (Applause. Tim Karen canario and I am the
project lead for the summer school science institute and
we’re pretty excited we just finished up our 10 year in this
project so that’s a big deal I want to start off with
presentations, we’re going to start with the middle schoolers
but first I want to tell you about the amazing week we had. We honestly, I think that we may
have had the easiest group of kids that we have ever had in
this program. Parents, it is really hard to
put a 12-year-old on an airplane to go spend a week across the
country with a bunch of people you’ve never met. So we really appreciate your willingness to do so, because I
think it’s made a difference for your kids to be here this week,
so thank you. And thank you for sending us great kids. Thank
you students for having a great week, for being enthusiastic,
for being excited, and for being extremely well behaved. But
also interested and willing to learn. I want to thank also of course the representatives from ARC,
from ORNL, from everybody from ORAU who does so much work to
pull this program off every year. And lastly I just
want to mention our master and resident teachers
who spend a great deal of time preparing and making sure that
parents feel comfortable putting their 12-year-olds on an
airplane across the country to stay with teachers they don’t
know. So I will introduce our teachers individually as
they come up with groups. But we in the middle school program
do three research topics and they will come up as a group,
and tell you what they learned this week. So we’ll start off with our 3D
printing group. So this is master teacher Brent
Lee and assistant teacher Hailey Evans and some of our kids. ORAU middle school science
academy presentation. The first group is going to be
3D printing. I’m from North Carolina.>>The first 3D print was called lithography which used liquid
resin and HLI sch gave the resin a fine detail but it was not very useful due to
the size and time it took.>>The second 3 eD printing was made in 1994, the reason — it
used resin to make the materials, but the reason it
didn’t work was because the materials were easy to break.>>Glass 3D printer is the most common 3D printer which is the
FDM or fusion model which would use plastic
filament to melt down a model into the shape that you needed and it is the most
common and first 3D printer to use color.>>Hello, I am Samuel Ramirez
I’m in frairlz. 3D printing is being used npt
constructing some things that have been built with 3D printing include
printed buildings a printed office building, printed Chinese
villas and those are only some of the things that have been
built with 3D printing. >>Another way that 3D printing can
be used practically is with surgery and transplants. Some cases can include having a
new skull printed and implanted, a
new jaw printed and implanted, and a new
heart printed and implanted. Another way that it can be used
practically is with clothing. You just have to scan the part
of the body you want clothing on and then you make a model of it
and then you place the clonetle on the model, and then you print
it and then you have clothes.>>The future of 3D printing
includes the following. Hello my name is Austin. You will be able to print
airplane parts.>>Artificial human organs will
be able to be printed and rocket parts. >>And you’ll be
able to make food in kitchens with 3D printers.>>More than 100,000 airplane
parts will be printed this will cause >>Artificial human organs would
be able to be printed which means if you were to have a
heart attack rather than your heart being replaced it could be
repaired. And NASA will be able to print
rockets for further deep space exploration.>>Many kitchens will feature a
3D printer. This will lead for them to have
dlectible pizzas biscuits and et cetera foods.>>Hello my name is Lauren, I’m >>And today we’ll be talking to
you about college paths and career >>We will also be showing the
degrees needed to go into these fields. 3D printing can be used in
biological modeling to make cells, DNA strands, et cetera. 3D printing can be used in
scientific modeling to make — to scale up or down larger or
smaller objects to see them in greater detail.>>Biomedical technology,
throoed printing can be used in
biological technology to make bones organs
muscle tissue et cetera.>>Architecture modeling. In this specific example, 3D
printing was used to make a smaller version of balancing
that would be too large to make in real life without a prototype
first.>>Product design. 3D printing can be used in
product design to make a prototype of a product that will
later be made for >> something used in special
effects to design and execute characters.>>Animation, 3D printing can be
used in animation for — to create a more realistic version of a
character from a TV series or a video
game. printing designers using 3D
printing in their everyday lives. 3D printing can be used
for pretty much everything under the sun from new body parts to
fun video game characters.>>Manufacturing. 3D printing can be used for manufacturing to create products
that would be too hard to create
using machining or molding.>>Hi, my name is ci era white >>Today we’ll be talking to but
the design cycle of 3D printing. We’ll be starting off with the
blue section, where we were starting
off with fighting an every day problem and creating a solution. I made a little product that
helped >>And I made a phone holder after you figure
out what you make you sketch out your design and have the
measurements after you have the measurements you add to the
program which you’re going to why, which we used >>
After you’ve built your design you hit export and download the
file and then move on to a program called flash print. You load in the file, choose
your machine, and strud extruder then
you choose the material you’re going to use, temperature, and
any supports you may need, after which you will download on to a
flash drive. >>After you download your product on to a
flash drive, you put it into the printer and you start printing. If you forget to add structure
or you let the plastic filament stretch too much your product
will be messed up and you’ll have to start all over again. Mark McFaul for letting us use
his office for three dimension design, to showing us what we can do if we
want to have 3D printing ation a future career. And Dr. Elliott from Oakridge national
labs for telling us a brief history about
3D design and what can happen with it. And also Brent and
Hailey for teaching us all about 3D printing and showing us how
to actually make things. And with that I’d like to
introduce the drones group. our groups, thank you 3D group
our drones group is led by master
teacher Lauren, and assistant teacherer Mark Rubin . I’m Justin from a small village
in New York called Cuba and over the week we’ve learned a lot
about coding and drones. So right now I’m going to tell you
all about — well show you all a little bit about what we’ve
done. Our craft. This ain’t supposed
to happen.>>Have you checked the
propellers?>>You just have to look at the
angles on the propellers. The different angles work in
combination with the direction of the motors to create lift for
the drone. If the propellers are in the
wrong position the drones will not have enough lift to get off the ground and
will do what you just saw, where it just spins. You should be
able to fly it now.>>Thank you. ) >>This exact scenario played
out on our first day of playing with the drones. That’s when I
learned while the meaning of our short motto, experiment — yeah,
experiment, fail, learn, repeat. Because I was experimenting and
playing around with a drone and I failed by crashing it into a
wall, but what’s the fun in not doing that. Then I learned from
Jeremy, that propellers make a difference, then repeated it,
and it worked beautifully.>>By the way my name is Jeremy
and I’m from Maryland.>>Hi, my name is salam from
Alabama I’m going to explain and demonstrate for you a few tricks
that we learned. On the second day of camp we
learned to code our drones to do tricks one trick was to perform
continuous loops. We lds learned to code our
drones to pause within each loop, and I will show you those
loops. (Laughter) (Applause. ) we’re demonstrating a unit to
code a drone to go in a circle. The circle will go right four
times at a 90 degree angle, into a
circle. We’re having some problems
again. from Tennessee. We learned how to code the drone
to do various shapes including a square. To do so, we had to take the
number of degrees in a square, which is
360, and divide it by the total number of
angers a square has which is 4 since 360 divided by 4 equals 90 we
programmed the drone to go forward two seconds and turn 90
degrees repeating three more times. This is what the code looks like to us, but this is what the
drone sees, using JavaScript. If the code is done properly, it should create a square when
played. (Applause. ) My name is Joseph and I’m from
South Carolina. And I’m doing a decagon. As you
can see here on the left of the screen is the code to make your
drone do a dodecagon and here on the
right is the code language called JavaScript and this is what the drone will see to
code the dodecagon. To make your drone do a
dodecagon you first have to find the right
angle measurements. To do that, I have 360 divided
by 12, since dodecagon is a 12 sided polygon. My answer was
30. So I wrote in code, new forward
one second, then turn 30 degrees to the right. So instead of writing that 12
times, I used a loop. A loop is a code that will
repeat the command as many times as you want it to. Since I’m doing a dodecagon, I
made it do — I made it repeat it 12
times. I would show you but I’m not allowed to hit any of you
with a drone.>>Hello I’m Tye from Ohio.
Last things we learned about are creating functions, or making
our own special drone moves. And coding a drone to move the
way you tell your tablet. First I’ll tell you about the drone
moves. Mine was a drone move that
smashes into the ground at the end, there’s the code for it
right there. I had some sound effects, but
the sound is not working, so yeah. Now about the tablet controller. It’s an event driven program
that lets your iPad or tablet control the
drone through tilting. There’s the code right there. You see
whenever you tilt one way it moves that way for a second.
Then you just tilt your iPad, you have to set up through pretty much
Bluetooth to get it to work.>>Hi, I’m an Marie I’m from
Maryland. This week our group talked to several people. The
first day we were here we talked to chuck Roberts from ORNL and
he told us about UAVs. Then we went to KCRC and talked
to Ed as well as Mike. Yesterday we Wend to ORNL and
met their unmand aerial systems team. They taught us a lot about
drones and what jobs involve drones and codingment we like to thank everyone who
took the time to talk to us this week. (Applause. drones flying but good up
forensics group. Our last group is a group that worked in
forensics all week and our master teacher leading them was
Marcella along with assistant teacher Casey . My name is Brad, and this is the
forensics group presentation. I am from — we were assigned to find out
who went to school at Oakridge high school but before we could
ever find out who left the school first we had to find out
what on earth we were going to do so we went to a local museum. Went to amoo museum called
Alcatraz east what we originally thought
would be about Alcatraz but it was about
crime stuff. Some of the , were get a away
cars of all time. Then they such as OJ Simpson’s
bronco. Then he had crime of every era
then he had life like forensics lab who is interactive. Actually the entire museum was
an interactive for us. There was amazing teachers why
would they collect artifacts like this and what were they
about. Now onto the crime scene.>>Hi, my name is dejia, I’m
from North Carolina, I’m also part of the forensics group. To
begin investigation we had to check out the crime scene. Evidence found at the crime
scene was a skull of blood, a note with handwriting, hair fiber, and
money. Two women claimed it was there,
we interviewed them about their
hair types and job. We worked on chromatography,
hair tissue and blood sample, I had researched, renara is a Veteran,
also known as a vet is an animal physician they take care of
anal’s health. The next is Bailey. She’s an expert in
chemistry. Thomas is a her pa toll gist a
person who studies plants. Zoologist works with animals,
our class, Elizabeth, studies insects. Now Eva will tell you about the
tests we did using chromatography.>>Hello everybody, I am even
fox and I was in charge of the section on chromatography. Chromatography is the separation
of a a mixture bypassing it through a solution. In the lab we used samples of
ink from the pens and markers the claimants used. We put the pieces of paper with
a dot of each of the inks the claimants used in a solution and
let it sit overnight so the colors could separate. The
next day we looked at however the solution traveled on the
paper and what colors the inks consisted of. As you can see on
the screen with some of them, I think, yeah. Like that one. By doing this we were able to
compare the inks we used in the letter found at the crime scene
to each of the claimants writing utensils. This exposed two false
claimants, leaving us with potentially 2 claimants.>>Hi my name is Sophie most and
I’m a freshman in Maryland. I’m going to give a presentation on
fingerprints. Fingerprints are a trace of impressions from
ridges in your finger, there are three types of fingerprints,
loops whorls and arches. 60 percent of the people have
fingerprints with loop 20 to 25 percent have fingerprints with whorls
and 5 to 7 people have fingerprints with
arches arches. Investigators need only 10
percent of the fingerprint to identify it. In We we brushed flor tefen powder
over the note to reveal the fingerprints next we looked at it under an
ultraviolet with a flashlight then we pulled fingerprint tape
off and placed on plain tape after the fingerprint tape was
on the clean piece of paper we used the ultraviolet flashlight
to get a better look at the fingerprints. Lastly we
compared the fingerprints on the note to the possible
fingerprints’ fingerprints and were able to narrow it down.>>Hi my name is ser in a I’m from Cuba located in western New
York I am currently a freshman I will be discussing desfication, I
learned how to identify animals bones using
etochotomisky. I began to examine features of
the skull. It is a tool that allows measures to determine the
identity of their different choices these consist of
questions to give you the correct answer in this case we have a skull
which is the muskrat. The ways to determine the skull
is if the head points forward it is likely a predator and if the
eyes were large it will likely be night
vision. These are some things we learned
out, thank you for this opportunity next up will be BJ
who will talk about hair and fibers.>>Hey guys this is Jeremiah.
One of the processes to find out who owns the skull was
identifying hair and fibers left behind at the crime scene to
solve this crime ewe identified the type of animal hair and type of
fiber, both of these were found at the crime scene we reviewed
them under a microscope and compared them with samples of
the claimants clothing and pet hair. The fiber turned out to
be cotton from the climbants clothes the animal hair turned
out to be cat hair. This means Zoe she’s the only
client who has a cat now on to gracey
who will >>Hello my name is gracey I’m
from Alabama this year I will be a freshman in high school. I’m
presenting the part of the investigation that is blood
typing an unknown substance. The blood evidence we found at
the scene of the crime was used to match, find and identify the
correct claimant of the skull. There are four blood types, A,
B, AB and O. After testing the blood types of the claimants
blood and comparing it with the type of blood found at the
crime scene, we found out that the claimant of the blood — of the skull is an
O blood type. And also we performed six different tests on
five different types of substances that were found in
the claimant’s blood samples. After further test we go
compared and narrowed the list down to three claimants. Next
we have chase presenting shoe prints.>>Hello, my name is chaste and I’m a student of northern high
school in Maryland. I am also a part of the forensic science
group. I will be talking to you about shoe imprints. In our
investigation we found shoe imprints on the floor of the
crime scene. To investigate the shoe imprints we decided to make
casts of the prints. To make the casts we mixed two
cups of plaster with one cup of water. Then we put it on the
print and waited for it to dry. When the cast dried we took it
out of the clay mold and inspected the marking and sizes of the shoes I found a
Nike symbol on the arch of the outer sole of the shoe. This
left on the Zoe Bailey and Helena, since they said that
they were wearing Nike that day. After examining all of the
evidence we came to the conclusion that Zoe was the
rightful claimant. The interviews, chromatography,
blood, fingerprints, and shoe prints all pointed to Zoe being
the rightful claimant of the skull. Special Thanks to Marcela and
Casey for being amazing teachers this week. And teacher of investigations. Finally, thank you from all of
us in the ARC, ORAU science academy
to kaila rkts pia — I’m sorry if I pronounce these wrong — Marie, Jennifer, and moua, Tim, and Dr. Zachariah and
all the staff sponsors ) >>Okay, so that concludes our
presentations. We also have an eighth grader
who is a student videographer for us she’s not here today but
her name is Sophie Bruce and she put together a video of our
week, and we’ll watch that video while the students line up accordingly
for the certificate presentations.>>3D printing has been really fun, we have prochtsz with we
are supposed to find a problem and
solve it. Solve that problem by building something or designing something
in the program that we use, which is
finger pad, and you’re — then you’re supposed to design something, and then
use that design and 3D print it, and when
you >>The 3D print — three dmengds dimensions
design, different 3D printing machines
that he has, and he has three different machines in the room
that we saw. And they’re all different kinds. One is a SAM printer and it’s on drywall,
and he has a printer and an upside-down
3D printer and he told us a bunch of things that he’s printed , and we got
to — that he printed.>>We used a tinker pad to 3D
print, to help solve problems in every day life.>>We are flying drones testing
to see what would work in obstacle courses, taking some pictures to
see what we’re doing, what we’ve done, taking notes on what we’ve done,
and what goes wrong, so we can fix it. We’re also working in
coding which coding is giving a computer
instructions to do a task. So we’re putting instructions
into the code so that the drone will
either fly, rotate, go forward, go back,
right, left.>>Well, I learned that drones
can be used for medical things like delivering medical
supplies, and helping other people, which I really
didn’t know about that. If you fly (inaudible) you have
to work to get that. And if you enter someone’s
property they can shoot you down, which I’m not sure if
that’s been confirmed, because it just — entered the law. talking about how they >>One of the cameras, I asked them do they do coding
they said yes they do coding. The trip we did this morning
they were showing us how they use — they
called RAS Rasberry Pi that’s a machine and
they have a map, they flew one drone
by map from where they’re working. we’re analyzing a crime scene
that we found there was a skeleton of something that we have to analyze and —
right now >>We are basically doing a case
about a missing skull, we’re classifying people through a right test as a
field trip we went to the Alcatraz museum. There we did a few projects I
guess on covering fingerprints and blood splatter. We also went through the museum
and found out the history of crime and all >>Right now we are going over plood testing, fingerprinting,
blood testing is how you can find out
what it is and we’re also going to go
over hair samples which will — hair
sample has >> We saw a graph it’s reactor
which was >>Graph it’s reactor which is where they were making nuclear
bombs during World War II. There was a whole lot of
research going on even after the war,
first they started x-rays, study for awhile. some supercomputers including
summit and >>– we learned about computers
of all types, what the supercomputer can do, and how it
helps people. so that you can figure it out.
How to make it work.>>Then we went and saw the cars
3D printed house. they made insulation which was a
pretty good idea. And turned out the (inaudible)
and it works. — it was classy they had a DJ
in the back, so it was playing music,
we had a two course dinner and then we were able to go upstairs
and talk with each other and hang out.>> At the baseball game everyone
sts down, gets their food.>>After the game we went to the
dress shop, people bought shirts. (Applause. ) Good? My name is halovich and I’m a
program analyst at the Washington, D.C. office. So I
really want to start off by giving a special thanks to
Kayla, thanks so much for taking the time to work with the middle
school students. And also to the masters teachers, too, and
the resident teachers. can say on three, a big thank
you to Kayla and the master teachers. One, two, three.>>Okay, perfect. So I’m going to start off with
presenting the certificates. And I’m going to go by state. And if we can get Tim on the
stage as well. And the first participant from
Alabamast Leah acer. tris 10 Carter. Tracy Cole, Alexis Frasier. And Solomon summer ville. Getting a picture, further in
over here. Next state, Kentucky. We have Austin grote, and
Jeremiah Moore. Chase bender, Emily holiday,
omela otharo. Sofia maus. Jeremy blando, . Next we have New York. Ser ein a ser eserena, and Justin. Next North Carolina. Baker rutFord, Samuel Ramirez,
jime ashong and that concludes North Carolina. Next we have Ohio. Kyleer mathis. And George
Ratliff. (Applause. We have Pennsylvania now. Aid en fox. So in addition to the ornl certificates, we have
Jennifer, who works for the office at the department for
community development, economic development in Pennsylvania and
governor wolf actually is presenting another certificate to you aiden.
(Applause. Joseph bo bee n. so bee n. Next we have Tennessee, Charlie Next we have Virginia, Brad
neerer, ceer group picture with the middle
school students. And if we can goot brooksy,
Jennifer, as well. minute break, so come back at
9:55. So 10 minutes, come back, we’re going to reconvene and
then we’re going to start with our high school presentations. about two minutes. the high school presentations. I am the project lead for the
2018 math, science, technology institute. I’ve been involved
with this program for 12 years. The previous 11 I was a resident
teacher this is my first year as project lead. So before we get
the presentations started I’ve got a few thank yous. First off I’m going to start
with parents, I really appreciate you sending your kids for two weeks I know
it’s a tough situation we’re so glad you entrust us with them for two
weeks we thank you for sending your kids obviously we this couldn’t
happen without ork OU we appreciate
those folks. There are a few people I’d like to thank real
quick. Our communication is going
through email, she’s standing in the back, I was trying to get her out here if
you see her thank you for what she does. everyone who has been here for
two weeks know how involved tie real is so
thank her. We have a lot mentors, they
dedicate their time for two weeks we appreciate that we have
a lot of facilitators in the building and the facilitators
are people that spend a lot of time with the kids at the lab
those facilitators spend a lot of dedicated time to those kids
and we really appreciate them. At this time, if we can — can
you go get the RTs? We have four resident ryrchs
that are withous students around the clock. They are pretty much
on the clock from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. for 14 straight days,
anybody who has been part of our program knows how important they
are. We have printed certificates for them this year,
and if I can get them in the building we’ll get them down
here. First up. Kelly sue Kagel. Next up we have Bridgette
Kennedy . (Applause. ) From Tennessee — (Applause.>>As you can see our resident
teachers part O of our program we appreciate everything they
do. At this time, the presentations
started from fusion materials for nuclear systems division, with
mentors — robots navigate their
surroundings? No? Well if you have, this presentation is for
you. We used robots to navigate
through a maze using two different methods with varying
success, but the two methods that we used were
infrared SPEAKER: A hypothesis was made
the infrared would be the best method to get through a maze, fast test
and reliably as they can do without failing. SPEAKER: Be the robots we used
for our experiment was bo bot but it’s not the board of
education that you were all thinking right now that would be weird it’s actually a
microcontroller made by PRA lax to educate about
microcontroller programming. If you don’t know a
microcontroler is it’s a small program you can do things to navigate that’s what we did
with the bobot. And — chassis is a piece of the
bobot is and everything is on it. SPEAKER: The two
sensors we used were touch sensor and the infrared and the way the touch sensor would
work is there would be two metal pins protruding out and when
they would hit a wall or something it would hit that pin
back into another metal pin which would break the circuit
and which we’d have instructions that we coded for the robot to
do where it would turn left or turn And the sfrawrd sensor worked
similar but it used light, so when the light reflected back
and it got close enough is and into range it
would react. So there was no the — contact
with obstacles if it worked properly. SPEAKER: This project used
sfrawrd touch sensors and also put it on a board to go through
a maze it was the same maze each time and we timed it using a
timing system. SPEAKER: The first graph, which is all the way up there above my
head, shows the times of the robots
that used the touch sensors, the — we
used two robots to collect the data from, and the first one gave us an average
time of 25. 8 seconds, and a standard
deviation time of 30 — not 30, geez — of 3.2 seconds. Standard deviation is a number
that is used to tell how far something is from the average. And a high deviation means that
it will be farther away from the average, while a low is closer
to it. And the second robot, its
average was a time of 27. 5 seconds and a standard
deviation of 2.4. SPEAKER: The second graph, which is the bottom one, represents
both robots using — navigating a
maze using sfraurd infrared sensors, the first robot, bot 1 had a standard
affirm time of 16.0.5 of a second. The second bobot, bot 2 had a
standard deviation — not standard deviation, average time
of 19.3 tenths of a second. Their standard deviation was 0.8
seconds. we will now do a visual
representation of what the maze looked like. representing our bobot. This is
the demonstration he’s using the sensors. ) different obstacles using the
touch sensors, and now he will
demonstrate using the infrared sensors. That was much faster than having
used the touch sensors. SPEAKER: The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate the
difference between touch and infrared sensors, touch sensor had a
standard deviation of — these standard deviations are fairly
high as the data is inconsistent and there is no predictable time
the bot will get. SPEAKER: So the touch sensor
standard deviation was much higher than it was for the infrared, the
infrared standard deviation both bots, both bots 1 and bot 2 had
a standard deviation of . 8 as was mentioned before and
that’s really low and really consistent and honestly is quite
remarkable. Because they’re both .8 that’s real consistent
that’s good, especially as compared to the touch sensors
which were in the 3s and 2s so it’s a lot better. And the infrared robots were
also a lot faster than the touch sensor robots. Actually, 8 — 9 seconds faster for bot 1 and 8 seconds faster
for bot 2. SPEAKER: So it’s easy to identify that our hhypothesis
was correct and the infrared sensor navigated the maze very
efficient lely and faster. We could use more test sensor
and possibly get faster times and possibly be even more
efficient than the infrared sensors. SPEAKER: So I would like to thank but not limited to Andy,
curt — Adam, key sha and to
organizations of ARC, ORAU and the Oakridge lab
has been an experience that will undoubtedly leave a lasting
impression on our futures. SPEAKER: I’m Kevin.
SPEAKER: I’m Alex from Tennessee SPEAKER: I’m Abery from North SPEAKER: — from Pennsylvania.
(Applause. science engineering
communications, Melissa and Bill.>>>>For a number of years now
work has been pro seeding in order to bring perfection to the
crudely idea of a transformation that does not only supply inverse reactive currents and
use of unilateral phase tractors but
also is capable of simultaneously
synchronizing nanograms. SPEAKER: This instrument is >>Whoa wait a minute does
anyone know what he’s talking about? Okay, you need to speak
so people know what you’re saying. SPEAKER: Yeah no
one is going to listen to you if you just spout
incomprehensively jargon you need to SPEAKER: Now you
can see from informing people on certain scientific topics you
have to simplify them so people can understand them better. SPEAKER: And that’s exactly
what we’ve been doing for the past two weeks. SPEAKER:
We challenged ourselves by trying to answer the question,
in what ways can we improve the
principles of climate literacy for high school students.
SPEAKER: Climate science literacy is the understanding of
your influence on climate and climate on society.
SPEAKER: The problem is that in today’s American society the
topic of climate change has become a highly polarized
political debate. It’s not on what to do about
climate SPEAKER: It’s always the same
you turn on the TV to see a debate equivalent to a boxing
match. In one corner you have a politician or bis man
representing the 3 percent of scientists who believe climate
change is SPEAKER: And in the other
corner coming out at 1 41 pounds and 6
foot, Bill NEI the science guy
assistance up for the other 95 percent that do. SPEAKER: Bill, bill, bill.
SPEAKER: Before we went into the so-called boxing ring we
took the time to learn a little more about climate change
science. SPEAKER: We talked with Melissa
Allen an observing scientist who taught us how to use a program
called Matlab which we took real life temperatures to show
climate change. SPEAKER: We went to a
meteorology tower called Met tower D and were able to see
realtime data in temperature, precipitation, and
wind speed. SPEAKER: We also had the
opportunity to familiarize ourselves with some of the tools
used by real atmospheric scientists and meteorologists
such as CO2 detectors and light sensors. SPEAKER: And we
looked at a lot, and I mean a lot, of graphs. Here are some of the graphs that
we analyzed. first graph on the top, this
graph is showing people’s political views and their views
on climate science. SPEAKER: The second graph shows
the CO2 emissions from 1870 and on. The temperatures — it also
shows the temperatures associated with the CO2 changes. While the black is historical
data and the colored lines are the projected data for future. this, we began our main
objective, to communicate complex ideas in simpler terms.
We decided that the best way to do this was to design a brochure
that could be easily read by high school
students and everyone to show what climate change really is
about. SPEAKER: For a person to go
from idea to action, the process falls this way. A person is
aware of a scientific consensus, whatever that topic may be.
Interest in this consensus causes the person to further
investigate the topic, thus increasing his or her knowledge.
With new knowledge he or she can accept the consensus and
eventually take action. That’s what we intend for this brochure
to accomplish. SPEAKER: For guidance we looked
to an article posted by various government organizations called
the essentially principles of climate literacy. SPEAKER: Some of the
information coming from the climate literacy document comes
from certain agencies such as the national owesianic
and — national oceanic and arriving administration, the national —
the >>A STUDENT: No SPEAKER: Anyway we took the
document and were able to simplify it to less than 100
words and put it into our brochure. I believe above is
number one the example we had beforehand, and
then — principle 1 principle 2 over
there is the condensed version. And here’s our whole brochure. We playfully named it the future
is hot. original document and its
purpose and from there we deleted added and rearranged
words to make them easier for anybody to understand.
SPEAKER: We hope this brochure will better educate people about
climate science in simpler terms so they can understand it
better. Thank you to our mentors Bill,
Melissa, and Ross. Thank you. change in the program here
because we have a couple early fliers, so
we’re going to give you a break hang
on right there. Up next we have material science
and technology division with mentor Zach >>We have had the honor
previous and pleasure to work with the nanostructures group
for the past two weeks on developing low cost
immerseable sensors for complication operations. These are built on the Arduino
board which is a microcontroler which the robotsics group
already explained you can connect to any computer through
this port right here and you can
control nearly everything off that board. The reason we chose to do
Arduino for sensors because it’s easy
versatile and cheap you can find knockoffs for about $30 on
Amazon that allow to you do everything that the Arduino
does. The first sensor we did
basically was a demonstration of the
photolight sensor. It basically runs off of these
diodes right here. You plug it into the board and
the relay signals This light right here changes colors based on the amount of (inaudible) different sizes. Amount of each ray of light into
a certain area and there’s
research going on it turns out too, using this
to take the red and blue light needed. What? Use the
microphone. So you can use this to detect
the blue light that’s needed to grow the plants. SPEAKER: Okay, so the next
sensor that I will be showing you is actually around my neck
as we speak. This sensor is called the tilt sensor. This sensor consists of LED
lights, wires, the breadboard and the Arduino board. The battery is here, and there
is you can see these are the LED lights, the resistorers, the
jump wires, and the battery. This sensor could be used for anything, such as inside the
house, outside, and much more. It works by plugging in the battery , and the ld lights will
come on in a certain pattern. Using this inside your house
will be as simple as a simple movement,
or any such, and it will alert you as soon as possible. As of now I will now give you a
demonstration of this. So plug in the battery here. The black wire goes here. Which is really hard to do, and
the red wire goes here. Now, as I tilt the board, you
will see that the lights come on in a very orderly pattern, and as I move
the board they turn off. Or keep going on in a pattern. They’re staying on now. And
they stay on for about a couple of seconds, and then afterwards
they start right back over. This project was very — thank
you — this project was very simple to make, it’s very easy, as Trenton
said, a knockoff for like 30 bucks, and it was really fun
being able to experiment with this and being able to see how
you can make something so small and so
interesting out of something this small. SPEAKER: Okay, so up next, this is the light they are a min,
also known as a scorcher which I won’t
demonstrate it because it had break your ears. This device is
very versatile because it can also be used as a motion sensor.
So I’m going to demonstrate how it works. Peizo and basically from these jumper wires, the electricity
goes through and there’s supposed to
be light sensor because this is
very bad so we just used this. It displace the air waves around
it and causes sound. In a real world situation it would be
used as an alarm system or anything like that. touch sensor, to where when you — so whenever you touch like if
you touch this, it will turn a light on. So this touch sensor can then be
used for like, a sink if you touch
the sink it will turn the water on, touch it again it will turn
it off, anything like that, very versatile, pretty
easy to make. SPEAKER: So in conclusion on these projects
our sensors we designed weren’t for any particular application
in mind as of yet because we really just wanted to
demonstrate the versatility. This was an old — what was it
like a radiocase or something? You put some kind of radioout of
it right? Yeah. This was an old radiocase a
rubber band and a starter kit and it’s a functioning belt loop
system. Hers was a box we found laying
at the side of the lab and quuft one of the lanyard and it’s
functioning as a waishl tilt sensor. See wanted to demonstrate you
could use these Arduino boards for nearly any application. And some of the other ones we
came up with were an ear log, doggie
door, so when the doggie gets close to
the door it opens so a snake or raccoon
can’t get into your house. they have these pumps, they run
about $20,000 and these pumps are contained in a vacuum pressurized system so
if the pressure gets too high it blows out the pump. $20,000 is
a lot of money to lose. So why not take a $30 board make
a pressure control system out of it and save your pump. In conclusion these things fun
to play with easy to use, can be
used by anybody and really everybody should try one.
SPEAKER: ation you can see we’re at the end of our
presentation we’d now like to give our thanks for
everybody who make this opportunity for us. We really
enjoyed being here and recommend anyone come here again. We’d also like to give a special thanks to our mentors, and our
main mentors who was not able to be here right now but he is
watching. So thank you, guys, so much for
making this possible for us. have Lockhart college freshman
followed for the last two weeks through all our external events
she has taken pictures everywhere we’ve been so she put together this little video. (Applause. We’re going to bring up the
research accelerator division. SPEAKER: Good morning. My name is Nick crave en I’m
from Mississippi.>>A STUDENT: I’m a list is a
young from New York northbound.>>A STUDENT: I’m — from
Pennsylvania. SPEAKER: So you might know
we’re the fiber optics group, so the past two weeks we’ve been working with an
intermerometr show of hands how many know what an interferameter is,
guys in the — sgrfr interfereometer. Wave interference we used a mach Zimmer interfereometer we used this to
find the coherence of wave forms and also to decipher an original wave form
from a vibration wave form. Fiber optics can be used in
hazardous areas with a lot of radiation, they also use it at
the SNS which is the facility we were at the whole week, and
also they built one of these it’s like four kilometers Wight
and they used it to first detect gravity which is pretty neat.
They can also be used to transmit data over long distances, so if you
ever wonder how we know how 2
galaxies are 700 light years are apart they
use interferometers for that. Here’s our set up for that.
Scroll down. Those two pictures in the bottom left,
they basically are the same thing, but the one on top is
just easier to understand. So we started off with our laser
that’s our light source. It’s sent into the fiber
circulator that’s sent into the fiber optics sensor and that’s
reflected back in the circulator it goes into this 1 by 2 coupler and that’s sent to a
laser split. one of them is sent to the fiber delay line
which is what we used to cause some interference the
other one goes into the polarization controller which is
another calibration tool we used but we didn’t really use it that
much. All those are sent back into the
3 by three coupler and there’s more
involved in there, it sends data to the oscilloscope which is
what we use to collect all of our data and view the waves.
So now I’m going to hand it over to our physicists that know what
they’re talking about.>>I’m Elisa, for our first experiment we did coherence, and
we observed interference signals and we used the fiber delay line
and by tuning that we found that it was —
throor three circumstances for interference that occur, three
conditions, and they are L1 equals L2, L2 minus L1,
and L1 minus L2 equal 2S, and S is that
gap in the sensor over there, and it
has to do with length. So depending on the lengths that
the waves travel different interference occurs. Then
for our second experience we measured this coherence and we
did this by finding the coherence range and we did that
with a bunch of math I won’t bore you with, we used a lot of
Excel sheets and a lot of calculations. But that’s the
coherence range. And in that coherence range is a bunch of waves up and down up and down
and counting them would take a long
time so we used math to find out how many there were. And each
oscillation or one wave form is one wavelength apart and by
calculating the number of waves and that number by the
wavelength we found the coherence length. And
coherence is a correlation that exists between the different
phases in a wave, and it’s important because finding
different coherence lengths on the same waves means that the
phase is not consistent, the phase should
be consistent. And our coherence lengtheneded
up being 45 — 46.4 plus or minus 2.88 micrometers. SPEAKER: Hi, I’m Reilly. I was told to dumb this down to
fifth grade level so hopefully it’s not like really boring. In this next part of the experiment we used the
interferometer to obtain the original wave form,
the hence we need something vibrating the vibrator attached
to the fiber center. We applied voltage to the
vibrator which made the vibration wave form and then
after that we tuned the fiber delay line to the 2S mentioned. This made it so we got
interference from the reflected waves and also from the original
wave form so we could determine the vibration wave form. After
that it goes into the 3 by three coupler and it’s split into
three lines as shown all phase shifted 120 degrees apart.
That’s to make sure that like we have a full cycle, because three shifted, 120, adds up to 360 so
it’s — yeah. After that, we obviously have up there for the measurements
retrieved vibration wave forms for different voltages applied,
which we were supposed to get a linear representation
for like what voltage we applied for what amplitude we would get
for the vibration, we got more of a polynomial fit, so I guess
that’s good. After that, that basically makes
it so that you don’t have to like normalize each of the waves
each time, and then use each other to remove the
discontinuities which the other ones and a whole bunch of
calculus, and that you can just depending on what voltage you
get, apply to that function, and know what amplitude you should
have. And I’ll pass it off to Autumn Peck. SPEAKER: Okay so we used the
interferometer to study interference, we went — we found coherence and
we found the original vibration wave form, and we graphed
amplitude as a function of voltage. us to wave goodbye. SPEAKER: I’d just like to
quickly thank our mentor Dr. lu. and Joan Smith who helped us a
great deal on this project and this
was an extremely fantastic opportunity, and I want to thank
everyone involved that made this possible. Thank you.
(Applause. SPEAKER: And I want to thank
Ms. Kayla for being so awesome in middle school thought she may
want to come back, and, yeah. a participant from the state of
New York I need you guys to line up here in order, we’ve got to
go ahead and get your picture made. So teacher or student
participant from the state of New York. frr Tim Thomas up here on the
stage, we have their certificates and
picture and we’ll keep going with the presentations. SPEAKER: Okay, we’re going to
start with the presentation of the certificates for New York. First up we have Christy gar let’s. Jacob Lord. Eirinn Mangan. Autumn Peck. My shell Michelle pocera, John Swanson,
and Elyssa Yonta. SPEAKER: All right our next
presentation was from the joint institute from computational
science this is supercomputer, . SPEAKER: Hi Annalee from >>A STUDENT: I’m Erica from
New >>A STUDENT: — from Kentucky.from Ohio. from Kentucky. Pennsylvania and we are your
super 8 super computing group. We did our project on
understanding and improving today’s supercomputers. The question we asked ourselves
at the beginning of these two weeks was what we can do to
improve them, and what happens when a problem arises when
supercomputers and the technology in them cannot
overcome problems on themselves. So super computing technology allows us to connect with one
another through social media, technology is a big part of
everyone’s lives these days, I’m sure everyone in here has a
smartphone of some sort. Jerry I saw you shaking your
head It also allows to us make advancements in medicine,
technological growth, and problem solving. This also
allows us to break down computers, networking, coding
languages, and different types of servers, and also allows us
to understand the fundamentals of computers themselves. SPEAKER: Okay, so I’m just
going to give you a little background on the project.
Supercomputers allow to us do many things. However, for most
of us who don’t understand the full spectrum of supercomputers,
a lot of the questions remain. However, one thing does remain
the same in any instance. Supercomputers are used to
generate medicinal solutions to medical problems, or generate
solutions to mathematical equations. Some of the main questions that
we had going into this project is what was your computer, how
do they communicate and how are they advancing in modern day
society. SPEAKER: Computers communicate
using a system called binary which instead of using place
value charts of 10, such as going from 1 to 10
to 100s like you use in elementary school it uses 1, 2,
4, 8, 16, and so on. For instance if you take the number
37 in decimal, which decimal
numbers range from zero to mine, you would
have 0010101, instead of 37. If you add all those numbers
together with the place values it equals the same thing. SPEAKER: All right, I’ll speak
of the materials that helped us complete our project. Some of
the materials that helped us were the RSA tokens we used, the
CAD 5 ethernet cables we used and also a switch which is a
networking device. I’ll start off with the CAT 5 cables. We
actually made these cables ourselves in our class we had to
cut this wire, you would pretty much take a little device and it
will cut this Jack, it’s called a jacket, and then
it will expose these wires on the inside and then you have to
line these wires up in a certain color combination, the color combination we used was T 568
come bow, or the color code. And that goes white, orange, orange, white, green, blue,
white, blue, green, white, brown, brown. So it’s very
difficult to be able to get all those wires in this little pin
right here, and then after that you have to make sure you take a
crimper, it’s called, and then you crimp all of these down.
And then that’s how you get your wires to work. These wires are used in every
day business and homes. If you ever see a blue wire running
through the wall this is most likely an This is what we had to connect our computers to our — to the
switch, which I’ll continue on to say, the switch allowed us to
connect our computers to the supercomputer. It allowed us to
get on the network of the supercomputer, and then from
there we were able to take the RSA tokens and then connect to
the supercomputer itself. After connecting to the
supercomputer we were able to run programs and write programs
on the supercomputer. SPEAKER: So what exactly is a
supercomputer? It’s basically a super powerful
computer. These machines operate at ab
extremely rapid speed for mostly scientific and engineering
purposes and it can handle extreme amount of computation,
and a large amount of databases. SPEAKER: Supercomputers are not
without flaw. For example, some consume up to
16 megawatts of power, which would be enough to power a small
city. It also produces a lot of heat,
and in order for it to work properly it must be cooled
properly. So currently there’s a water
cooling system that is constantly circulating water.
In addition to this water system there are fans that are set in
place, but they have their own problems. They produce sound
pollution, which can be damaging to your hearing
if you stand in summit’s room for an extended amount of time.
And supercomputers are not exactly user friendly. It took
us almost two hours just to log in with those RSA tokens. for the supercomputers would be
one way to dispel the heat that’s created by the cooling
fans, or created by the supercomputer itself, which
would be the supercomputers are now powered by electrons which are what power
supercomputers now but in future if there was any way to use
phoons instead of electrons, phpbs are photons
are little particles of it’s, so it will make it faster but not
generate as much Then if we can get rid of the
heat we can also get rid of the cooling fans which causes sound
pollution and if we were able to get rid of the cooling fans that
means the workers would be able to work efficiently and without
having leave the room or wear ear protection once in awhile
because they won’t have a lot of sound. SPEAKER: Supercomputers allows
society to understand the problem and to solve them more efficient —
effectively. By enhancing supercomputers ,
they become developed better to receive human commands.
Upgrading the cooling system and the processing power, it allows
the supercomputer to reach the
summit of its potential. SPEAKER: This is the size of
our brains when we got here, now we’re on our way
home. It’s this big. SPEAKER: From all of ution at
super 8 we would genuinely like to thank you all for making this
possible for us. And we especially want to thank
Oakridge National Laboratory. Oakridge associated university,
and regional commission. And papo jay can you stand up
please. We love you, and thank you so much You get your lunch and we’ll
load you guys up. SPEAKER: From the computational
science and engineering division. everyone in the audience. Who likes chick fillet? Yeah?
SPEAKER: Do you ever wonder how they change where they put their
locations? SPEAKER: Well we have a show
for the very few of you. SPEAKER: We would like to thank all of you for coming out today
to our game show which is who gets the
chick, chick, chick fillet. My name is Shay your one and
only host. Thank you, thank you. Each contestant I have with me
today represents a state that makes up the new chick fillet
from an chiz. So now let’s meet our
contestants. SPEAKER: Hey you all, I’m from
browns ville North Carolina. SPEAKER: Hey you guys I’m from
New York. SPEAKER: I’m from Maryland, not
Baltimore. SPEAKER: Now that you have met
our wonderful contestants the objective of the game is to
allow the contestant to fight for the right to
housing a new chick fill A. The answer will buzz in a question
about the represented state the state that has the most correct
answers will win the honor of eating more
chicken. SPEAKER: More chicken. SPEAKER: Now
what is the population of your state. Gosh I’m not quite sure of that
answer. I’m going to look it up on our
program we created SPEAKER:
According to the program the population of North Carolina is
about 10 million people. thing I know the answer to that
question on the top of my head unlike Colton over here. New
York has approximately 8.5 million people. SPEAKER: I would like to phone
a friend. The population of Maryland is approximately 6
million people. SPEAKER: ding, ding, ding. For
the population category the winner is North Carolina. Now, whose state has the most
income. SPEAKER: Well since North Carolina has the
most people I think it’s okay to say we probably have the
greatest income. But that’s not the question, so let’s go with
an average household income of about $50,000. should just let Colton know that
we make about $51,000 a year per house hold. SPEAKER: I got you all beat we
have the average house hold income of about $69,000 per
house hold.>>A STUDENT: Okay the winner
of the income category is Maryland. Now since the two
essential questions have been answered let’s consider one more
factor. Does your home county already
have a Chick-fil-A. >>We don’t have a Chick-fil-A and they’re hours away from our
home county. SPEAKER: We do have a
Chick-fil-A I’m going to let you know right now I’m about 10
minutes away from it and let me tell you those chicken minis are
so good. We can make it five minutes from
my house. SPEAKER: Well I guess Colton
figures he can beat me at everything. I just want to you know we
should get the Chick-fil-A because I have to travel hours
for that luxury. SPEAKER: Okay thank you
contestants so much for being part of this game and answering
these questions to the best of your ability. Although now the
moment you have all been waiting for, the
consideration we have chosen, drum roll please. Maryland, for the new
Chick-fil-A. ) probably wondering what all of
that nonsense was about. But we created a computer
program, with the help of Dr. Dalton lunga and love tin Gerber
ding. The program is displayed by our poster outside, we highly
encourage that you look at it. But essentially what we did was
we took the 20 10 census which is
a whole lot of data and we turned it into a computer
program so that you guys could understand it. SPEAKER: We used a computer
programming planning called R which is used for analyzing statistics by
many statistics scientists the user
interface where we code what you will see as a user and make it
easy to understand. There’s also the server where
you put the math and logic behind the user interface and
there’s writing the app which is applying the server to the user
interface and creating an app. Okay, well, I’m going to go
ahead and show you all our graphic or our pictures that we
have up here. Will you scroll up just a little bit. So this one above my head as she
mentioned earlier you have the user interface the server and
run the application. So we used — the user interface
is what you see on an application. That can be all
kind of widgets all kinds of tools, all of that sort of
information. And for the server, that is how
the application runs. You can change colors in the
server, right? Server, and the column widths
like if you want to have multiple columns on application
and then run the app it’s literally one line of code that
just says run. Pull it up and it runs as a whole program and
everything. For our project, scroll up to
the top one. The very top one right here, so
as we said, our title of our project was decoding and
depicting our nation’s demographics or DDND. So for
the top picture right here we have the whole map of the United
States. It tells you the total population based off of color.
So as the colors get lighter you have a less population, and as
the colors get darker you have more population. A total
population of the state. For the second picture we’ve
chose Tennessee, that’s where we are, you know, it works, it
flows. So it shows you the different — or the different
population for each county. In Tennessee. So as I said earlier, colors —
lighter colors means you have less people, darker colors mean
you have more people. And for our bottom picture we
decided to do the average income. So — per house hold. So we chose the — we chose
Arizona, I believe, to depict and show on a
graph the averages for every house — every county in Arizona to show the
prices they make per year. a program that made visual
interpretation of the data within the 2010 U.S. census
easier. As a result of our efforts we were able to
determine the new location for a theoretical from an chiz.
Programming is an art that comes with a need for expertise and
precision. Our studio has a built-in messaging system that
alerts the use of an impending error. However helpful this may be, the
error messages are very hard to interpret for the untrained eye. We had to learn a new approach,
to comprehend hir information, tearing them apart piece by
piece. When debugging a program it is possible to cause a Daisy
chain effect. To avoid this only one change
should be made at a time this avoids the possibility of a user
forgetting what they had changed which makes the process even
longer. Just as language is human used
to communicate programming language have their own gram mar and syntax,
programming must be on spot because programs can’t around a
simple error as humans can when someone misspells aered would.
An obstacle will halt progress while this can become quite frus
trating it is of the utmost important that you
keep working the feeling you get after overcoming an obstacle can
only be described as euphoric. In conclusion an application was created with the shauni
application to turn this information into visual format.
Use of this app will be able to determine the next location of a
new Chick-fil-A from an chiz based on viewing demographic
information. The graphs were created using data
extracted from an online source and placing it into the shauni R app
for each state’s chosen demographics. The users relevant to the
project, Carey cur lander vice president of Chick-fil-A can use
the information displayed to place the new restaurant in the
best location according to the qualifications initially set
forth. >>A STUDENT: I also wanted to say when he said
grammatical errors I know was it Tuesday of last week love ton I think I’m correct, there
was one grammatical error, and we all
spent four hours sitting there with the same error, and it took
one step to fix it. One step. We had Dalton lungi as our
mentor he said oh I know what it is you just have to go in — the
file name was helpers and we had saved it twice so it said
helpers parenthesis 1 closed parentheses, he changed one
thing. So for four hours we just sat there and they he came
in and in two seconds, there you go. Great, four hours gone,
that’s good. So anyways, wanted to point that out. So
it’s very, very complicated. But again, I want to say thank
you to everyone who made this possible, especially loft-on Gerber ding,
you know. And Dr. Lunga he got his Ph.D. to let you know he
deserves it and everyone who made this possible for us. I mean, it was absolutely mind
blowing experience, something we will never forget, and I want to thank
people from the Oakridge National Laboratory, I want to thank the ORAU, I want to
thank Billy, Mary sue, Melvin, and Bridgette for putting up
with us because I know nafs a handful. And to finish off I
just want to say once again I’m colon Bryan from
North SPEAKER: I’m Meagan from
Carolina. I also want to throw in something really cool. Dr.
Lunga will you stand up? He named his new supercomputer
after the 4 of us. Give him a round of applause everybody. SPEAKER: My name is Shay Snyder
and I’m from bluff city Tennessee. It was truly an
honor to work with love ton and Dalton, I will
never forget this, and Dalton is a low key
genius. SPEAKER: Your face. ) Hi, last student group and from
science and technology division, mentor
parang joshi. Hello everybody my name is
Mercedes Snyder and I’m from Pennsylvania. SPEAKER: My
name is Zach and I’m from Alabama. SPEAKER: I’m Shane from Ohio. SPEAKER: Now for the past two
weeks we’ve been working on printing out these tiny little
circuits on printers that probably cost more than your
house. Well, I say probably, but I mean
they’re $400,000, so if your house costs or more than that, then please
share the wealth. I’m going to be going to college,
tuition is pretty pricey, so trust me, I’ll use it. Now, that was a funny little
example to show you that we aren’t working with average day-to-day
printers. No, these are advanced printers. And you know what, for advanced
printers, you can’t just use plastic. Nope, you have to use silver I
think. Now, you might be wondering
Mercedes why did you have to specify that
you are using silver ink. I am more than clad to tell you.
Silver is highly conductive which is very useful in making
sirghs. And Zach is about to tell you
more about circuits. SPEAKER: We use the silver ink
as Mercedes mentioned in a special printer called aerosol jet
printer they use gas pressure to spray the ink. A single strand
of pair is about 100 micrometers in size so it’s pretty small.
The variety of benefits to using a printer to print your
circuits. One of the main reasons is that printers use — manufacturing,
instead of a piece of wood when you chip out a structure you’re
going to have scraps and stuff which you didn’t do.
Manufacturing uses only what you need and doesn’t waste anything
or create any harmful byproducts that are hards out of to the
environment which is a big benefit to to hazardous to the
environment, which is a big benefit, when circuit boards
have lots of byproducts which are hobble for the environment. Also printing doesn’t require
molds so say you’re make ag piece of a rocket ship you have
to create a mold, you have metal, you don’t ever use the
circuit again. It changes every time you the
design the rocket part. Along with others these silver
printers can print on a variety of substrates. Some can be flexible whether
allows a mir rad interesting ideas. SPEAKER: — Chandler you failed.
Chandler the guy in the back. He was supposed to laugh and he
didn’t. But I find it pretty nice that circuits can become
flexible now. Chandler was embarrassed. So I have to look at him again
please. But on this current, also
electrical and Chandler you failed twice. On this current technology we
can use a lot of different things to pript
out electrical circuits that actually work and we would show
you but this video wouldn’t work so ignore that I said anything.
But we can use like papers and polymers, and cloth actually
like your clothes, to print electrical circuits that can be
used for all kinds of stuff like your phone, everybody but
— what’s his name over here has a phone in here. So that’s
pretty nice. And to be more specific we
printed a lot of stuff on polymer called
capton and you can do different things with different materials
of course. Like our capton can withstand
almost 300 degrees Celsius heat so it can be used with stuff
that gets pretty hot. — thanks for 96 ring somebody. And it makes it really good for
curing — makes it time sensitive. And curing is a process that
heats stuff up and it removes all the gas from the silver so
it makes it really conductive. And that really helps in our
research, it makes our measurements more accurate and I’m going to turn
this over to >>Now back to the
beginning of our two week journey we started with the
basics, we printed out three different sets of lines using
our silver ink on the capton and we used those to
measure different lengths — or we used those to measure different resistances
with length width and depth. So as you can see it calls the
graph like as we added more, it
usually causes the resistance to go down. And
anyway. So the test we performed helped us to determine how to
print our own electrical circuit and this information was also
used to determine how long the LED device we
placed on the circuit above how long it would stay on and how
long it would stay off in a blinking pattern. Once we had
actually printed our circuits themselves then we used
the special double sided tape to connect all the capacitors in components
needed to make our circuit functional. SPEAKER: We would just like to
say thank you to everyone that we met at this camp, especially our
mentors Dr. Joshi and his assistants, the
yog chaw. and Chandler so just to know we
weren’t making fun of some random person
in the audience, we knew him. Both of them, but we just picked
on Chandler. And we would just like to say
thank you to everyone who gave us this wonderful opportunity to
be here, we really do appreciate it. Thank you. (Applause. our teacher participants, with
our first presentation coming from the
ORAU biosimilar lab Dr. Bioji. Golly gee miss jay what are
those blue SPEAKER: Actually those blue SPEAKER: What’s so special
about SPEAKER: Chromosomes carry your
SPEAKER: What makes up a SPEAKER: Let me show you the
important part do you see those blue dots there, those are telemers
they’re found at the ends of your chrome so many times. chromosomes. You see the red bars in the
middle those are centromeres they hold
the >>PATRICK: I’ve heard of mutations before what’s
the way they get SPEAKER: The most common for
mutations to be caused is by radiation SPEAKER: Gee whiz what’s that?
SPEAKER: Let me show you how it works. Michael? SPEAKER: But wait. There’s
more. Do you see this part of the chromosome that got knocked
off? Well, sometimes it attaches to
another chromosome. And now this chromosome has 2
Ken tro sdmeers that’s called a dicentered chromosome and the
more it has the more radiation it’s expotioned to.
SPEAKER: That’s just amazing thank you Mrs. SPEAKER:
You’re welcome Ashley. Now have a great summer. ) SPEAKER: I know that lovely
hand there was for our amazing Ashley wheeler the sweetest kid
in Tennessee, she actually just found out she was doing that
after Jacob had to leave, so another round of applause. SPEAKER: I’m Christy from the
lovely central New York town of after ton New York. And we just got to spend two
weeks in Dr. Balaji’s laboratory, the. And we got to spend time with
his assistants. So background of what we did is that dicentric chromosomes now
that you know what they are are the gold standard for measuring radiation exposure
in lymphocytes. And usually, we can measure from
zero to 5 grade of radiation exposure and 5 gray is already
pretty high it’s pretty serious. But the more radiation exposure,
the less cells you have to study, and so that was the
problem. Can we study higher radiation doses, how can we do
that, so the question was will this particular chemical
caliculin A give us more cells to study. SPEAKER: Well, good morning my
name is Michael Adam from Mississippi and I’m a biology
teacher. Prior to us arriving here at
Oakridge, word was obtained from two
donors, irrated at the University of Tennessee in
Knoxville when we got here we cultured the blood and created
it with caliculin A and what that did was that cause us our
chromosomes in the lymphocytes to condense pprematurely, much
earlier than they would in the normal cell cycle. And that allowed to us overcome
the problem of early cell death due
to high radiation doses. So then we — hold on, sir — we got our chromosomes in our lymphocytes
and we put them on the slide, and we
applied the fish technique, with the
fish technique we provided region
specific probes with different diodes on them so we could see
different regions of the chromosome. And then we gathered images and SPEAKER: Thank you Michael I’m
Michelle I live in New York and I teach with Mrs. Garlet at af Ron central school. The results we got was it
allowed us to gather a sufficient number of cells and
it showed a similar trend in chromosomal aberrations or
changes, we called them mutations earlier, it’s not the
same thing. Per cell, is the traditional
method. So we noticed that there continued to be, as
radiation increased, the aberrations per cell also
increased. And up here, we have a sample
cell which was exposed to 20 gray radiation which is an
extremely high dose of radiation. And you can see that long blue
and pink thing right there is
actually a septiccentric chromosome which means there are Steven centromeres on
it which is something nobody had ever seen before, so that was
something very cool to see. SPEAKER: I’m Kristy how from
the great state of North Carolina,
and I teach biology honors and environmental science honors.
At the conclusion of the data that we collected using this new
chemical, we were able to realize that yes,
this caliculin A does yield an adequate number of chromosomes
that can be studied at a much higher dosage of radiation. So
we were successful in doing that. Now, the lab that we
worked with, we have one member here with us today, Ms. Terry if
you’ll take a stand please and let us — raise your hand and
stand up, there you go. Yes, yes. She and her colleagues — will
actually be going to the next step and looking at doses even higher
than 20 grays and that’s the next part. So we were very excited to be a
part of this process and to do something new that nobody had
ever done before and collect some data and start
that. So we would also like to thank all of the mentors that we
had, we’d like to thank the doctors and the
professors that we had here, and we’d like to thank the students,
the students made this experience very, very enjoyable. And we had a really great time,
and we’d like to thank all the organizations that contributed,
and helped us to be able to be here because I had a wonderful
experience. So has my colleagues and we wouldn’t have
been able to do something like this without you. Thank you. ) Okay, up next from the chemical
science division Dr. Evens’ group. SPEAKER: I’m John fisher and
I’m from Ohio. SPEAKER: Hi I’m Barbary avino SPEAKER: Hi, I’m Christina
Rogers also from Pennsylvania. And we wanted to start you off
with a Okay, all right, there’s always
one, there’s always one right? That wasn’t too bad I think we
could have done better. But if you’re from Pennsylvania one of your favorite things is the Penn
State lions and our research is also dealing with one of your
favorite things, it allows you to use your smartphones, which I see some of you using
right now, parents are the worst, you know. So it also
allows you to use your iPads your laptops your television,
but allows us to travel places by planes, trains and
automobiles, big yellow school buses, or the minivan if
you get there fast enough. And it also allows us to have
electricity in this room, to be at a nice climate right now and
be nice and relaxed not too hot and not too cold. So what
I’m getting at is energy. All of these things require energy.
And we know that our energy resources are limited. We have
non-renewable resources, like fossil fuels, that aren’t going
to last a lifetime, and we love energy. You would be probably
be a mess without it. So our big picture is to really
look for energy sources that are going to be sustainable for our
future energy needs, and clean energy, and
just provide for us. So that’s our big overall question. SPEAKER: Did you know that
there is free energy all around us? All we have to do is harness it,
or harvest it. Solar cells harness sun’s energy
and hydroelectric dams harness the
river’s energy. These accomplishments were
advancements of their time, but now, now is our time. It
is our time to create advancements in biofuels. Biofuels, as opposed to fossil
fuels like Christina told us, like coal or oil, is made from
biomass which is a plant material. Biomass is abundantly grown and
easily harvested. Plants are the future of energy. Scientists have been explaining
biomass for some time now for this presentation well study
switch grass. Switch grass is a tall grass that gross very fast. Some of the reasons why we study
switch grass is because it is a perennial, means it will grow
over and over again, it need only be
planted once and you can harvest it several times. It’s easily
grown in places where not many things could grow like Rocky
hillside or poor soil conditions. It’s noninvasive so it will grow
just where we plant it and typically not places where we
don’t want it to grow. It’s harvested like hey so
farmers already have the equipment to harvest this and
store it, bale it and ship it to places where they can process
it. Turning switch grass into
biofuel is stit still in its infancy but
there is still much to learn on how to break down the cell falls of the
plants, the cellulose and lignin into
ethanol or into sugars and eventually into
ethanol. SPEAKER: Let’s try this again, SPEAKER: She’s right we’ve been looking at biofuels for decades
before we need a much more comprehensive understanding of
just exactly how the source plants are organized at the
molecular level. And that’s where heavy water that you guys
create right here at Oakridge comes into play. Now
personally I have to admit I didn’t really understand all the
uses for heavy water I thought it was just sort of a byproduct
of nuclear power but as it turns out heavy wart has been used
extensively to help to understand the intricate
structures that are inside of plant cells. So heavy water is nothing
special just beyond the fact that the normal hydrogen in the
water molecules have been replaced with an isotopic
form of high dron called deuterium, that’s called deuteratied water or D 2
O. It’s got interesting parties properties we were more
concerned with it’s easily incorporated into the plant
structure, once it gets incorporated into the mant structure other
scientists can bombard it with neutrons and
look at the scattering, and get a look
at details within the plant cells themselves. One of
the things that scientists have had problems with over
historically is the fact that a lot of plants
don’t really like growing in concentrations of D 2 O above
about 30 percent so that limits things for future potentials.
Now, so ultimately what we were involved with was just
techniques growing plants in better circumstances and
understanding just how best to propagate them, how to maintain
them right and how to get them to increase their uptake of this
heavy water. If we’re going to study these plants in
some detail and in a wide manner we’re going to have to a lot of
these plants and they have to have good control in placing
them. So in regard to biofuels themselves there’s a lot we have
to learn if we’re ever going to make these biofuels compete with
these dirty forms of fuel that have traditionally been used
that are cheaper but in troublesome in the terms of
byproducts they make. Switch grass could be an
important source for that biomass for the reasons she’s
giving but we’re interested in lig no cellulose it’s a complex
word because it’s complex material but it’s a combination
of big long air matic polymers called
lignin and long fibers of cellulose so
there’s the name ligno cellulose. One of the things
it’s not easily broken down into simpler
molecules like glucose that we can ferment out
and use for biofuels so the holy grail
is to be We’ve been looking at the
structure so it can be handled more effectively. This composite molecule is
important to the biofuels and important for the research we
were doing here at Oakridge. Primarily what we need to 0 do
is grow these plant sources under strict conditions we can’t
just throw seeds out into the grass and see what happens, we
have to have measured amounts of controlled growth environments
and steady light. So we were looking really
basically three methods to study plants in this fashion, you can
just germinate the seeds you can look at till lers which are
branches off the main stem and see how they grow or cuttings
off the nodes which is where the leaves come
out up the main stem. We looked at two versions of that we
didn’t get into the seeds that much we were trying to determine
the benefits and detriments for each strategy. The ultimate
goal was to generate plants quickly and efficiently and
ultimately maybe develop strains that were easier to decompose
under conditions and get at that glucose which is the goal of
everyone is. So the process of releasing
glucose from lig notices cellulose is called digestion, and that’s the
ultimate goal of this whole thing. So as we’ll be discussing next
here when lignin is not present like in paper glucose comes out
of it very freely but when lignin is present like in the forms of switch grass and
in that chopped up fibers, then it’s a lot slower to come out. So being able to propagate
switch grass critically or significantly in a lot of
quantities is going to allow for a lot 0 research to begin —
bear some fruit. So. SPEAKER: Okay, even though I’ve
lived in Tennessee my whole life I’m not a vols fan sorry, we’re come mo
dor people. Vanderbilt, W-2, W-2 I know
right? I’m going to move over here so I can increase some of
the graphs. So in order to best study how to
propagate these plants, we first had to have plants to study, so we got
— we had cuttings taken from anal a
most switch grass plant, we had four sets of till lers, and 8
sets of nodes. Everything needs to be sterlzed
so we sterlzed the fume hood using a 5 percent bleach
solution, and then surface sterlzed the nodes and the
tiller cuttings. The nodes were then embedded into sterile Petri dishes full of
agar with a specific growth media wrapped in
PRA film to impair any contaminants and placed them
under a fluorescent grow ramp. The tillers were placed in jars
of another growth media wrapped in
PRA film and then placed under a halogen
lamp which is actually a little bit — which has a higher
intensity. I don’t know how to make this
bigger. Okay, never mind. Well, whatever. So the nodes are in the little
Petri dishes and then the tillers are in the jars. After
a week — oh, thank you, are you going to show me how to Em bigen
it? I know it’s not a real world. Oh beautiful thank you. Excellent job, thank you. So after a week of growth or
allowing our materials to grow, the
noticedal cuttings didn’t show very much growth which is
actually to be expected they do take a lot longer to start to
grow and propagate. But the root cuttings did grow
pretty significantly within the week that we had them. However, one of the tillers had
a fungus growing on it so its
little plant buddy had to be removed and put into a new
sterile jar. Our other study was to look at the difference between
pretreated cellulose and treated cellulose. So the pretreated cellulose
would be the dry switch grass. And that’s this four set of
Petri dishes right here. The top two are the dry switch
grass, and the bottom two are paper. That paper has been
treated so the cellulose is now freer, without the lignin. And by putting some enzymes in and digesting them, we can see
that having treated the cellulose, the amount of glucose that was emitted or
was released was off the charts. So we compared that to this
little baby graph up here. Of glucose, the amount of
glucose versus absorb ants. So the amount of glucose that was released from the treated paper
is an incredible amount of glucose. And that’s what we
want. We want that glucose, because the glucose can
turn into the biofuels. The untreated switch grass, its
absorbance or the amount of glucose that it had is somewhere
in the middle of this graph, is .46. So by treating the cells with
some kind of digestive enzyme to remove that lignin, we can get to the
cellulose easier, and then create more
glucose that would create more biofuels. And that’s ultimately what Dr.
Evans’s research and her team are working on. So I’d like to — we would like
to thank Dr. Evans for opening up her lab to us and letting us
work, yay, it was a lot of fun, and we’d like to thank
everybody at ORNL and ARC and ORAU for
allowing us this opportunity to come here and play science for a
week, two weeks. All right, thank you. chemical science division and
mentor Dr. Brockman and facilitator Jim
Davis. Hall I Burton I’m from the great
state SPEAKER: I’m John Swanson I’m from a small town called cherry
creek in SPEAKER: I am David spot from
Ohio. David Scott from Ohio. I want
to start by saying we have really enjoyed ourselves this
week or these past two weeks, we feel
like it was a once in a lifetime experience, working with Dr. Papooran really enjoyed. We worked at the critical
materials institute and worked on high performance 3D printed
magnets. So 3D printing as you heard some of the middle schoolers say is an
additive manufacturing process it allows us to do anything that we can 3D model in
a CAD program. We can then make by printing. The really exciting part that we did, we got to work with, was
that when you add the big area of additive
manufacturing which is a really large scale 3D printer we could
not only make small parts but you can make parts up to the
size of a small building. So it’s really, really exciting
to get — to see that, and to work with things that have come
off of there. The overall project goal is to reduce the amount of neodemium we use in maghs, we
work with iron boron maghs and the reason we need to reduce that amount that we
consume is because we do not have a U.S. production supply of neodemium.
The majority of it comes from China about 90 percent, 10
percent comes from some other southeast Asian countries, so
that’s led our government to put them on the — put the udemium on the
critical materials list and that’s how it ended up at CMI.
So we use maghs every day, you probably don’t think about it
every day, but probably when you got out of your car you hit a button for your
electric door locks, magnet. So maghs are everything,
everywhere from small speakers to large motors, to all kinds of things
that we use throughout our lives. So that’s why it’s
really critical to us to have these magnets. So what we did wi worked with
these neodemium iron boron magnets . And what we were
interested in is measuring observing the magnetic flux reduction as we applied heat
over time to those. And John is going to tell you a little bit
now about how we observed that. SPEAKER: Our research was driven by, as
Dave said, we wanted to find what the
best combination of magnetic material, compounds, and coatings would
result in a magnet that had the greatest resistance to loss of magnet ic
flux. And to that end we were each
given a 3D printed uncoated magnet that was cut from a larger block, if you
will, of magnetic material. They’re not very big, you can
see this compared to a size of a pen, this is one of them right here, and so we
had to start out by determining what
our baseline magnetivity was and we
will to determine the orientation of the magnetic
field was around the magnet because we had to be able to put
the magnet in the instrument that
measures the magnetic flux the same way every tile. Obviously
we needed to determine the baseline to know where we
started from. Now, our magnets had various compositions, that’s neodeniu boron. Sulfite matrix, the baggie is
just an example of the pellets that are
melted down and then struded to make the 3D magnet. The other picture is a
magnification of the neodeminium in the matrix
material. This is the flux media we used. To determine the baseline and
all the other measurements that we made. We took three — excuse me — we
took 10 pairs of measurements each
time we used this, and there were 10
pairs because we take a measurement when we put the magnet into the machine,
which is the rings, we put it in the middle of that. And then we
would take another measurement when we took it back out again.
All those measurements were averaged then which would result
in one data point. Now, to simulate the magnet
operating under industrial conditions, we had to anneal the magnets
which means they’re being heated up. In this case we heated them to
200 degrees Celsius for a given
amount of time, and then it was taken out and allowed to cool. After it was cooled then we went
through the appreciate process again using the flux meter, and
we did that three times. Once for three hours, once for 23 hours, and once for 69 hours,
for a total annealing time of 94 hours. Those data points were then graphed and that’s what we used
to do our analysis of the information. I’d also like to mention that part of our experience was being
taken on a tour of the manufacturing
— excuse me — demonstration, and
demonstration facility, where we were able to
see the cutting edge technology that is
going on now and being developed, and can make things like this COBRA car
that’s a 3D printed car, and it’s a part of
an engine block that was designed by — excuse me — manufacturing by a
big area additive manufacturing process. And now Ed will talk about our
results. SPEAKER: All right so David shared with you a
little bit about why we’re doing this, because of course we need to reduce the use of the
neodemium and John told you a little bit about our methods to
I want to lead you into our results. So if you will, think about John
as And we’ll talk a little bit
about some of the things that we experienced and came out of this
research. So what we ended up seeing was a relatively high flux loss
expwrks that experience is believed to be due in part to
the magnets not having any coating. But it was also due in part to
the fact that the magnets did not have — or tested actually
at about 50 degrees Celsius above what industry
standards are at 200 degrees Celsius. Typically you see
about 150. So without having that coating,
you had oxidation that occurred. And that increased the flux
loss. I’ll show you a graph about that. So remember, I said that David
is M 3, he’s the big blue line. And I am M 1, that’s the gray
line in the middle. And of course John is M 2 this
that’s the orange line. So what magnet do you think had the best
properties, looking at that? Magnet 2? Okay because it
tracks more along a linear line right? If you look at 1 and 3
you see the magnet loss, you see some increase, and then you see
a great deal of loss over time. We didn’t have the time that we
would like to have had, the volcana
our assistant there that was so gracious with us, I think has
had some magnets he’s been testing for at least a thousand
hours, so you get a little more data from that. We’ll mover on here. So some of
the conclusions that we drew from our research were that
the less than 13 percent of magnetic
flux loss that we experienced was within industry standards. And we also experienced that at
a slightly higher temperature. Industries usually as I said is
about 150 degrees. Celsius. So right now, the critical
materials institute is currently attempting, they’re not
attempting, they have done this — they’re printing a 3D
stator that goes to a motor it’s iron silicon, this will be for
use in miniature motors, that is centered with
bronze, and they’ll continue along that line, and would love
to see how that works out, volcan. So they
continue to evolve their use of different powders , different coatings that will opened Mize
the optimize the coatings performance. At this time I’d
like to thank those that made the opportunity for
us, before I do that let me show you the stator. This is the
drawing for that that was put in production at the NDF
facility has been printed there that’s what it looks like,
they’re trying to optimize that, think the goal is to create a functional 3D printed motor,
electric motor. As far as our acknowledgements we’d like
to thank the support of the critical materials institute,
which is energy innovation hub it’s funded by the United States
Department of Energy, the office of energy efficiency and
renewable stri industry, advanced manufacturing office
I’d like to thank Mr. Jim Davis our facilitator for guiding our research and process Mr.
Vulcan for his substantial time and effort in coordinating our
research and our data analysis. We greatly appreciate the
opportunity afforded to us by Oakridge
national laboratory, by Oakridge associated universities, and would like to
thank the Appalachian regional
commission for their substantial contribution to our research and
experience here. We’d like to thank you Mr. Tim Thomas, and
Ms. Marie west fall and Ms. Emilahalovich — halilovich get
that right. So thanks once again for all your support. And Mr. Pooran, I don’t think
he’s wus we’d like to thank him for
substantial contributions there. SPEAKER: Okay our final group
for today from the bioscience division Dr. Jeremy Smith with facilitator SPEAKER: Adam Steiner I teach
at SPEAKER: You may be wondering what aquaman elastigirl and
Pac-Man have to do with our research project. Well
hopefully by the end of what our little talk, you’ll see the
connection. So let us briefly go over what
we’ve learned these past two weeks. Our research project is
understanding protein structure using simulations. Proteins are essential for life
and the second motion abundance
substance in the body they are composed of the various
combinations of the 20 amino acids and are linked together in
chains that vary in length and complexity. There are four structured types
of proteins. The promise naid structure
describes the order in which the amino acids are linked together
to form the protein. The secondary structure is the
folding of the protein that gives it the 3D shape. Such as alpha hel I cease and
beta sheets as can be seen on our poster. The tertiary
structure is the comprehensive 3D structure of the protein. The quaternary structure is
formed by the interaction between multiple chains. The significance of the
structure of fold of a protein is directly related to its
biological function. For example, care etin contains I did sulfide
bonds. People with curler hair have
more I did sulfide bonds in the care
tin than people with straight hair. This is a discussion of the
structure to function. Proteins that lack a distinct
structure are considered intrinsically disordered and
have been linked to diseases such as Alzheimer’s. SPEAKER: So during our time
here at Oakridge national lab we used
many technological programs to study protein structures. So the first protein — or first
program that we used to study structure was the protein data
bank or PDB. Now, the protein data bank is an
open portal where static protein structures are stored. Interesting fact is that in 1976
there were only 13 protein structures stored on this data
bank. As of today, there are over
142,000 protein structures stored from researchers all over
the world. Now, casually you don’t have a
protein structure that is in this data bank. So we have to be able to create
a protein sequence and come up with a three dimensional
structure for that. So you’re probably now asking
yourself well, how do we do that. There’s an open server called
the iterative — ITASR — threading assembly refinement, which is also known
as ITASR. What that does is you put your protein sequence
into the server, and it then looks to see if anybody
else has done research on it, and can give you a 3D structure. If it can’t, it then breaks up
that protein sequence into smaller segments and looks for
known structures already to give you a 3D representation of your
protein. The other program, and final program, we used to study
protein structure was visualization molecular lar
dynamics or VMD along with its source code NAMD, and the
analysis to quick M.D.. Now the purpose of this was that when
proteins fold, they vibrate in that state. So we want to look at the
display, the animation, and the analysis of how those proteins fold, and
then vibrate, over the static pictures which allows us to
better understand their function in real life. SPEAKER: we ran in the quick MD software
in order to study the structure and the molecular dynamics of
numerous proteins. By the end of the first week we
were tasked with choosing one of three different proteins, and
going through and running the tools that we
were utilizing, and come up with the analysis in order to come up
with our results. So on the diagram up here we
have several graphs. These happen to be the graphs of
our RMSF, which helps to indicate
where the proteins are the most flexible. So in the one in the upper
left-hand corner, that’s the myo globe in, that’s the one I chose, and
it is made up of healical parts and
then turns. So where the peaks are in the
graph, that repts represent wrd the turns were. Whereas the other lower parts
were the helical parts of that protein. Then we had the titan, which if
you look at the diagram that we created with the software, it is
primarily beta sheets. So if that graph there’s not a
lot of fluctuation happening there. That you could observe. The last one over here,
ubiquitin, it was a combination of both the helical and the beta sheets
and so you can see a little bit of characteristics of both of
the graphs in that one. And the peak at the end is where
it can attach in other things. So we worked with a lot of math,
but the program yoouts utilized a much more complicated version
of the math. We isolated it down to this box
over here, which is the potential
energy, and then we looked at the force,
which is the opposite derivative of it. So those of you what one day
will take calculus you’ll be working with derivatives and
this is an application So we utilized Excel to produce all of these graphs and also to
produce the graphs of our potential
energy and force, graphs that are on our poster. Because it
was a more simplified model we used just two Argonne atoms
in order to get those graphs. So how do — aqua man and
Pac-Man relate to what we’ve done, we’ve decided to look at
these in context to something that you could relate to with
what we studied. So myoglobin is a protein found
in the muscle cells of animals, and it has a strong affinity for
oxygen, which allows it to function as an
oxygen storage protein, providing oxygen to your working
muscles. So diving mammals such as seals, whales and possibly even aqua
man, have greater amounts of myoglobin in their muscles
allowing them to remain submerged for longer periods of
time. SPEAKER: Again, titan, how does
that relate to elast ti girl, well titan is the largest
protein at over 27,000 rescues. Now our segment that we looked
at was only around 10 two residues and was comprised
mainly of beta sheets. And Titan’s primary purpose is for
the structure and elasticity of muscle fibers, so just as elast ti girl
has to retract her arm titan would be
responsible for the elasticity of your muscle fibers.
SPEAKER: Ubiquitin is a small protein that exists in almost
all cells of the human body and it helps to regulate the
processes of the other protein in the body. Ubiquitin is
involved with the removal process of opens late proteins. So it is similar to Pac-Man in
that the goal of Pac-Man is to remove asp dots as possible. Hopefully this overview gives
you an insight into the research we’ve been able to complete while we were
here at Oakridge. We’d like to acknowledge and thank the above organizations and people. For without them what we were
able to accomplish in these two weeks would not have been
possible. We are excited to take back into
our classrooms what we have learned. We want to share it to our other
colleagues so we want to say thank you to all of you. Thank
you. SPEAKER: Okay at this time
students, teacher participants line up as you’re supposed to we’ll get
the reps up for certificates and pictures. . continue with the presentation
of the certificates, we did New York previously so now we’re
going to start with Alabama. First one up, Kameron Mcgriff. Zachary Reynolds. Now we have Kentucky, Karen min
cus, Greg McCull la, and dack ta
tiller. Maryland is up next, we have we
have Noah Akin, Mariah bold en and
Roger Dixon. And now from Mississippi we have Michael Adam , Nicolas Craven, aShawna how well, and that
concludes Mississippi. (Applause. Now we have the great state of
North Carolina. Meagan Adolph . col ton Briand . Christy Hall, Halliburton. Anna Lee, Trenton Teague, Mabry
Watson. (Applause. Now we have Ohio. John fisher , Tiana gold, Alyssa ip I pollly to, James Myers, Paul
Scott, tailor Wade, Kara Williams,
Shane Bays or base, and that concludes Ohio t. And now we continue with
Pennsylvania, if we can get the represent tifs
from Pennsylvania on the stage. First up, Lea evens, Andrew
beatsman. Baxter Hostettler, sorry,
destiny Hughes, Cierah Manross. Reilly McDowell, Christina Rogers, Mercedes
Snyder, add am Steininger and Barbi vana. beswick. Alex an ber bowman, Mary coal
ter, Ramona Padilla, Shay Snyder, and Ashley
Walter. Ashley Walker. Oh, Hanna Little. (Applause. ) Hanna Little. And now if we can get all the participants, students and
teachers, for the high school program up on the stage. One
final picture. SPEAKER: All the rest of the
teachers, come down, Billy, Bridgette. SPEAKER: No. >>A
STUDENT: Just making sure we get some of you in the back, if
you can’t see my face. Move in there. right here. This is good afternoon almost. I’d like to invite everyone to
join us for lunch in the lobby. Thank you very much for being
here. Thank you all of our mentors for
your time. Thank you parents. Hope to see you again soon. (presentation concluded. )

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *