Cont. Performance Improvement (CPI) – Federal Leadership and Professional Development Seminar Series

Cont. Performance Improvement (CPI) – Federal Leadership and Professional Development Seminar Series


So welcome everyone today to the federal leadership and professional development seminar series, this is our eleventh seminar Just as a disclaimer no statement of the seminar should be construed as an official position of Ark HHS or any other federal agency So what is the federal leadership and professional development seminar series? It’s a cross government seminar series on leadership and professional development topics with seminars occurring every one to two months The speakers are federal employees most for SES or other leadership roles and attendees can be any government employee in EGS level Attendances in-person or remote? There’s no cost to attendees and the the seminar series is not funded there are three main goals for the seminar series one is to share a federal leader expertise and lessons learned to provide free trainings this training resources are always limited and three bring individuals together and foster intra and also, interagency connections collaborations and sharing So it’s proven to be a very effective mechanism to share federal leader expertise and folks have found it Very valuable to have feds actually talking about leadership in the government The seminar Reach is government-wide right now We have about thirty two hundred subscribers on the listserv, and it’s continuing to grow our new development our exciting new announcement Is that we’re going to be creating a member database? So if folks that are on a listserv would like to be included in the member database I’ll be sending out a survey in January And if you would like to be included in the member database that you can be contacted by other members if folks want to connect with you Then please do fill out the following fields name and contact information Etc. You can also include expertise. This is completely voluntary It’s just a way to facilitate connection between the the members of the listserv so whoever does opt to join the member database then we’ll send out the the spreadsheet of The database in February in that same survey that I’ll send out in January. I’ll also include Opportunities for involvement volunteer opportunities to be involved in suggesting future topics speakers, etc so for the lessons learned today just be thinking during the seminar what your biggest lesson learned are and At the end of the seminar you’ll be receiving a post seminar Evaluation survey that will ask you about your your biggest lesson learned and then also what you plan to do with it And if you’re in the room, I folks have leaves in front of them If you write down your lesson learned that it’ll be added to our big seven-foot-tall tree of learning Our next seminar is coming up in February. The seminar will be on life balance for leaders So we also have seminars coming up on professional branding and also best practices and strategic planning So for more information about the series, please don’t hesitate to contact me Here’s information about joining the listserv If you’re not on the list of currently to receive future announcements, and also the link to the YouTube channel is here as well So the YouTube channel has recordings all the seminars since February Michael–ah Bostrom is joining us today He is the installation readiness program manager and the continuous performance improvement program manager for the Marine Corps installations Command Marine Corps installations. Command is the headquarters command for all Marine Corps bases around the world Michael began his federal career in 1987 as an enlisted marine and was selected for the Marine Corps enlisted commissioning education program After taking his agree in business administration and Finance at Oregon State University Michael was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the US Marine Corps Michael served as a comptroller an active duty marine for 12 years before transitioning to the public sector He started his performance and process improvement career in 1999 when he joined KPMG consulting as a senior analyst in the federal services branch conducting business process improvement and re-engineering projects aboard Navy and Marine Corps installations in December of 2000 Michael transitioned back to the federal service as a senior management analyst at the business performance office at marine corps installation West Marine Corps Base Camp in Pendleton He served 15 years there before accepting his current position with Marine Corps installations command at the Pentagon Michael is a certified Lean Six Sigma Master black belt and a certified yellow belt and green belt senior instructor and a member of the federal Improvement Team Michael joins us from the Mount Pleasant neighborhood in DC and is originally from Boise, Idaho Please welcome Michael Thank You Kim mmm First off. I’d like to thank Kim for having me here today to speak with each of you and also for you to each of you for attending Today we’re going to be talking about a continuous process or performance improvement how to use Lean Six Sigma and three constraints to improve the performance in your organization’s So before we get started what we I’d like to ask a question and have each of you indicate whether you’re you know of or whether your agency has a Performance process has a performance process improvement program within your organization. So indicate, please yes No, or don’t know And we’ll be coming back to that data here at the end of the program Okay So again, we’re going to be talking about three Three methodologies within what we call the the CPI or continuous performance Sometimes you’ll hear that referred to as either continuous process improvement or continuous performance improvement It’s a little term the DoD came up with in order to Encompass the three methodologies of Lean Six Sigma and Theory constraints we’ll be talking about each of those we’ll have a little bit of a summary towards the end and provide you some additional resources as Well as an exercise the graphic that you see up here on slide four Illustrates the CPI again, there’s a term developed by the DoD I used to Refer to the three methodologies of lean thirty constraints at Six Sigma, so what is lean real quickly lean is Where we eliminate non value-added activities or waste within our processes Third constraints the third constraints were focused on identifying and mitigating constraints within our processes and Six Sigma the focus is reducing process variation and improving reliability so again, we chose CPI 2 to be the encompassing term for these three methodologies All three methodologies are very complimentary and we’ll see that as we touch on each of these today Ok, so first we’re going to talk about lean Sowhat’s liens. So the textbook definition is liens as a set of principles concepts and techniques designed as a relentless pursuit to reduce waste In layman’s terms what that means is we’re just removing as much waste from our process as possible We’ll talk about that the the different types of wastes here in just a minute, but keep in mind that the traditional focus used to be on on Trying to improve the proportion of our process that well that was considered Value-added and if you take a look at the graphic there at the bottom of the slide Traditionally about 5% of our processes is what we consider to be value-added whereas 95% is what we considered being non value-added or waste Some of lean, we’re trying to reduce that 95% portion of the pie as much as possible if we do that and remove waste from our process our process gets faster and less Expensive or we save money so thereby lien is about speed and efficiency Toyota Production system or TPS? They’re the gold standard in lean production Again a typical process efficiency is about five to ten percent using lean religiously boosts out to about twenty to twenty five percent so with that The next slide and so what is its purpose? Again lean is about removing waste or those activities that don’t add value to our processes or the performance of our organizations You’ll hear me use the term synonymously but non-value-added is the same as waste We’ll talk about each of the waste here in just one minute When you’re analyzing your process oftentimes, you’ll see a red dot and that is used to symbolize The waste or the non value I have abortions of your process or steps within your process Okay, so what is waste so we have eight eight types of wastes Complement the eighth one is compliments of DoD we added the eighth one trying to make it our own? but the first seven you You know more than likely here in industry The first type of waste is transportation The second is inventory or excess inventory Third is motion forces waiting Fifth is overproduction over processing and Defects and as you see if they’re the top of the slide There’s an acronym that can help you remember that Tim wood or Tim Wood you? Depending on which version you’re going with but anytime you see that eight types of waste within your process We’re going to label that as non-value-added or waste and we’ll usually put a red dot on it to signify that that’s this Process step is non-value-added keep in mind that the coding of those process steps as waste it simply gives us a way to we’ve focused our efforts so That we can come back and reduce those as much as possible in the future So a little bit about lean in the history of lean Lean is the oldest of the three methodologies and it dates back to the early 1900s with Henry Ford Being one of the first people to declare what we call a war on waste Henry Ford worked vigorously to remove the waste in his processes Associated with the assembly line and the building of the Model T By doing so he realized significant reduction in both the cost and the time required to produce Model T One of the things mr Ford wanted to do was to get the new technology into as many people’s hands as possible because he knew it was life changing And the only way he could do that was to reduce the cost and when you reduce the cost you then need are more people are able to afford the vehicle or that product and Therefore you’re going to have to increase your production and he was able to achieve both of those goals using lean concepts into lean methodology In the 1940s after the world war ii or towards the end of World War two The United States took lean back over to Japan in order to build up their manufacturing capability the Japanese of course Were very susceptible to to lean and really took it and ran with it and so much so that United States basically More or less had lost the practice or the utilization of lean manufacturing concepts until James wall Matt from MIT brought the brought them back to the United States many years later, so Cut lien started off here in the United States way back in the early 1900s we took it over to Japan to help rebuild them after the war and Kind of forgot about him, you know for lack of a better term and then James Womack brought that back for us and Developed what we call five lean principles So That’s basically how you do lean is with the five lean principles So you the first thing principle is to specify value from the customers perspective Keep in mind that the customer is the ultimate determinant of quality within your process Or value within your process And so when you look at leaning out your process you want to make sure that you specify that value from the customers perspective The second lean principle from James Womack is to identify the value stream Value stream defined is simply everything it takes to produce a proctor service from the time The requirement is identified until that product or service is delivered to the end user That constitutes our value stream and so as you can imagine that can be that could be quite a large quite a large process And so what you want to do is you want to keep in mind that you want to focus on Improving the system as a whole and not the individual parts of that and so in order to do that You have to identify the entire value stream The third lean principles to make value flow continuously without interruptions very similar to the example of the assembly line Where the vehicle is moving throughout the process and continually adding value at each step in the process? Same With Lean principles you want to make sure that that value flows continuously and that there aren’t interruptions in that process Except for the fourth lean principles to let customers pull value produce only what the customer requires or pulls out of the process This is going to make sure that we tie production to customer demand Going back to our one of our types of waste overproduction this ensures that we don’t In a situation where we’re over producing And then step 5 relentlessly pursue perfection We need to continuously assess our process in its performance And establish that culture of continuous improvement Which is what the C and CPI is all about that continuous process or performance improvement Ok some of the tools that we’re going to talk about for Under the lean methodology the first one basically deals with cell layout or workplace layout Whether you’re laying it out for your process or for your organization, but traditionally on the left hand side of the slide you see What we called it before but the process is confusing. There’s a lot of travel and motion waste within the process If we have something that’s at the install phase. We’re not sure whether that’s at the beginning of the process at the end how far that that That product has to go until it’s complete And so there’s just a lot of waste that’s inherent with this type of setup And so what we want to do is we want to move towards something More like what you see on the right-hand side of the slide where? It resembles a basically a horseshoe Scenario so that the product or service is inducted at the top of the slide It goes to it works its way throughout the process and comes out the bottom of the horseshoe If we do that then the this is what we call single piece flow where we produce one at a time it’s very visual so if you you can stand even where in that process until The status of the process you can tell where that part is in the process You know whether it has 50% to go whether it’s about complete Or whether it’s just beginning or entering that process and it also reduces travel and motion waste within your process in your organization The next whole we’re going to take a look at real quick is something called a spaghetti diagram And I guess I’m probably give you two guesses as to why it might be called that But it kind of looks like you know, maybe somebody dumped their bowl of spaghetti out on the floor The one on the left so a spaghetti chart or spaghetti diagram shows the physical layout of the production area And so that’s kind of what you see here on the left And we and there’s two different things that we’re tracking there on the before side material and technician So if you take a look there I mean you really don’t even have to know what the process is to know that you know, it’s pretty busy, right I’ll do that technician when he goes home at nights. Probably, you know, probably put some miles on his on his tennis shoes now afterwards What we try to do is again take a look at how that that production area is laid out We try to lean and out so that we’re reducing the motion waste We’re reducing the travel within that process and what you see is just a lot cleaner process So again, we don’t even have to know these processes are to know that you know The one on the right is probably the better process Especially if you’re that technicians that’s you know, putting all those miles on his on her shoes every day It probably is very minimal effort to to actually achieve what was done on the right? Probably just moving around of the different sections within that process So again, this is called the spaghetti chart and it shows the physical layout Another tool you can take a look at is a something called a circle diagram Looks a little bit like grandma’s needlepoint. Yeah, right So on the left there We have the before and basically what a circle diagram shows is information flow could be physical information flow It could be virtual, you know, whether your hand carrying a document, you know, I hate to admit it But we still do that a little bit in the DoD Yeah, we’ve gotten a little bit better over the years But yes There’s some diehards that still want to have that that physical document that gets carried from office to office for signatures or for approvals or for review But you can also use it for virtual Tracking of documents and it basically shows all the handoffs that that that’s going to make within that process so again You really don’t even have to know what the process is to know that probably the one on the right is a lot better, right? with a lot of that waste removed now it’s going to be you know, not only faster but probably, you know If you’re not tying up, all those people’s time taking a look at taking a look at whatever we’re routing through that process and you know, it’s going to reduce the cost of your Of that process as well so again, all these tools are aimed at tried to lean out your process and You know whether it be the physical layout of the process or the the virtual layout of that process and to make sure that we Address each of those types of waste and reduce them as much as possible Another tool that we have within lean is something called a 5s And a 5s is a workplace organization tool. I hate to say it, but it’s kind of like cleaning out your garage I’m always I’m always surprised at the level of Interest when I teach Green Belt that people have in doing it 5s and if you do it properly It’s a little it’s quite a bit more than cleaning out your garage That’s it’s putting controls in place So that your garage doesn’t go back to what it looked like before you started cleaning it up Which we all know that that happens pretty quickly But it’s a process and method for creating and maintaining an organized clean and high-performance workplace Again, it helps to create that visual workplace so that you can tell where things are out in the process You can tell what the process is Etc It helps people distinguish between normal and abnormal conditions at a glance, you know if you’ve gotten rid of all the clutter in your process you can you can now You’re now able to see whether the process is on track whether they’re behind You can make it visual. A lot of the DMV’s have started going going with you know, the Q Matic systems and those visual systems The people can distinguish between you know, what kind of conditions are having their you know, if there’s if the kinematics on D4 you’ve got d1. You’re probably gonna be there a little while, right? But at least you know what the process is and you know where you’re at in that process 5s. We consider it to be the foundation for continuous improvement You know trying to achieve that zero defects reducing cost and then just having an overall more productive workspace And if you anybody’s ever seen that show porters, you know, it’s on cable They do something very similar in that program where they go in and they the first s there they sort, you know They go through and they sort the needed from the unneeded So you clearly clearly distinguish needed item from the unneeded And then you want to get rid of the stuff that’s not needed right on the hoarders usually wanted to keep want to keep it but luckily, they have somebody there that you know kind of convinces them to To do away with that and keep in mind this can be applied to both a physical and a virtual environment Yes, you can apply this to not only your shared drives your SharePoint your your calendars, etc, etc Your hard drives for your personal computers In order to get the full effect from the 5s within an organization So the first s then is sort second is to simplify You want to keep the needed items in the right place? You know example this might be if you have if you use file folders in your you know in your job or in your workplace You probably don’t need the whole case of them right there at your desk, right? You probably need a few there or however many enough to get you by for a month or a week or whatever the case may be and Probably the rest are somewhere else. So again, so you don’t have all that clutter within your work section So again keeping the needed items in the correct place to allow for easy and immediate retrieval and You’ll hear this from time to time, but we call it a place for everything and everything in its place So the third s is systemic cleaning It goes a little bit beyond just cleaning up your organization or your workplace or your garage, whatever the case may be it’s also doing some of that maintenance that needs to be done, you know, making sure that the filters are clean the you know the the the Preventive maintenance is done in those machines. And again keep in mind. It can be applied to either a physical or virtual environment The fourth s is to standardize so you find the best way for using subject matter experts from that work section To find the best locations or best methods etc. And then those become the new way So if you’ve designed the office to be a certain way according to your subject matter experts within your organization And you’ve designed the layout and where things are going to go and a place for everything and everything in its place Then that becomes the new and everybody has to have to buy into that We we have tools like standard work instructions and SOPs that help us. Keep keep it that way and Then the last s is sustained So just like in our home lives with our garages we needed to be able to have the discipline to maintain those improvements because people have you know, it’s just human nature that people want to go back to the way that The previous or the status quo but if we don’t have that sustainer that discipline to Maintain the first flores’s then we’ll quickly find our find yourself back in that situation that we’re at before Same thing with the show the hoarders that show on the hoarders Okay So when we talk about lean And we talked about we’ve talked about the non-value-added part or the waste But there’s also the value And we have some very very specific definition of what’s considered value-added in your process so when you’re taking a look at your process and you’re looking at removing the waste and going in and labeled labeling things is Bad and non-value-added, etc In order to be considered value-added it has to meet these three character Greek arteria. The first one is the customer has to want it. Of course Therefore by extension be willing to pay for it so I but I teach I always like to use the Steering roll on a car does the customer want? Wanna steer yes, that’s right So they’re willing to pay for that Maybe they wanted a driverless car or something, but they you know They want that vehicle to be able to steer in some form or fashion on The second condition is it has to change form fit or function? So currently if I don’t put a steering wheel on a car does it change the form fit or function of that that product? Yeah, because you can’t drive it right under current now. I’m gonna have to change my example in the next few years, but Be yeah, so that’s kind of the litmus test for changing form fit or function. Is that It has to change some sort of aspect of that that product or service and the third criteria is that has to be done Right the first time it can’t be a product of a rework loop or of rework. So so if a prop the steps meet if a process step meets those three conditions then we Consider it to be value-added and we put a get a put a green dot on it And again, we’re not going to look at the value-added stuff We’re that was a traditional focus. Now, we’re going to focus our efforts on the non-value-added parts of our process All this the coding of each of those process steps is something called a it’s all part of something called a valuing You’re gonna look at each step in your process You’re going through those criteria that I talked about before for you know, you’re looking for the the Tim Wood or Tim Wood you Making all of those with a red dot you’re looking at the value-added checking out those three criteria Putting a green dot on those or you may have something That doesn’t neatly fit within those two categories and we call that business value In business value usually process steps that can’t be change due to current laws or technology You’ll hear a couple other definitions for this This is the one I tend to like It’s usually stuff that the business requires you to do Especially in my line of work, you know Granted were the were the where I work at our installations command. We’re the headquarters element for our relations around the world. So You know, there’s a lot of things that a headquarters usually requires of their subordinates that they have to do, right? and so that’s that’s the type of stuff that would fall under business value or maybe If I’m at a facilities maintenance organization on one of our bases, you know We have we have to abide by water quality regulations and those sorts of things Current laws of technology that we can’t change that we have to abide by Again we use the this value analysis to as a way to focus our efforts Anything that we put a yellow or red dot we’re going to look to remove as much of it as possible Or reduce it as much as possible Okay, so some vic best practices for lien We always encourage people if you do nothing else other than map your process and remove the waste you’ll be doing better than probably 90% of the organizations out there And it’s not that hard to map you be just how many people really don’t eat don’t even know the process Or some of the processes within their organization or they’re unfamiliar with well what happens with it when the you know that? When it leaves my area. I throw it over the wall and the next step in the process Most people are usually just focused on their little pieces of pie or their little piece of the process So a best practice thing would be to you know, at least map your problem, you know make that available or make it visible So that you’re not only your customers know what that looks like, but the rest of your organization and then conduct well Like kind of what we just did a value analysis go through and take a look at you know What things are considered to be waste? You know, what motion do I have of my process what transportation you know? where am I over producing or where am I over processing and Label those label your value-added based on the three criteria We talked about your business value and then try to remove as much as those as possible It’s surprisingly easy to actually remove the waste from your process Once you’ve done that you would create what we call a future state map which is basically what your process now looks like with that waste removed and then Hopefully you get towards it one of the harder parts of CPR Which is actually implementing things or implementing the new process And then you want to make sure that you come up with some sort of control plan To make sure that your process doesn’t go back to how it used to be Because again, we’re creatures of habit We tend to tend to want to go back to the status quo or the way, it used to be Here’s some examples of industry leaders in lean and again Toyota no surprises up there at number one You’ll see at the bottom of the slide here That’s just the reference where this was a I basically just difficu go search to see you know, what would come up You know, so again no surprise that Toyota in Florida to be top of the list some of those other looks like there’s a couple there are maybe real well-known, but Again, leading industries or leaders in their industry for lean manufacturing or lean production Okay, a little knowledge checks to see if everybody still awake here. So what’s the correct answer here? So lean is is a a new weight loss program for employees Be a war on waste See Employees in or in an organization or D adding what everybody loves extra inspections B, right? Yeah, it’s a war on waste being DoD but I guess we probably had to work that were worth the word war and there somehow but Yeah, it’s a war on waste, right? We’re declaring a war on all those things that are causing our process to cost more or to be To increase our cycle time. Okay, so that’s lean nutshell Wow again There’s a whole lot whole bunch more tools that we haven’t covered but now we’re gonna move on to three constraints. So again three constraints Three constraints is focused on systems. It’s basically follows the analogy of You’re only as strong as the like a chain is only as strong as the weakest link Same thing within three constraints. The purpose of three constraints is to identify where that constraint is at and try to mitigate it So constraint can be anything to keep you from meeting your goal so the first kind of their is to have Your process your organization and then if there’s things that are keeping you from you probably have a constraint within your process It’s also referred to as the slow step in the process And so we pretty much always have a slow step in our process But it doesn’t become an issue unless it’s keeping us from meeting that goal that we’ve identified It helps us understand interdependencies and complex systems A lot of times things have to be done in a sequential order or a certain order so it helps us to understand what those inner dependencies are and then it helps us align our Practices and our behaviors towards those the goals of the organization You know in support of reducing that constraint three constraints came from my agent by the name of dr Eliyahu Goldratt who was an Israeli physicist And it was based on or he he publishes working in a a fictional book called the goal Is anybody in the goal heir online? Well, I say seen but there’s a so yeah, there’s a book and there’s also a movie You know, it looks into good. They always make a movie, right? Same same case here, but it’s been a best-seller for many years business bestseller Though in the book. It’s it’s a fictional story that takes place Where he actually describes what are called his five focusing steps So the first focusing step is to identify the system constraint so we need to know where that constraint is that in our system and the way we do that is we just visually look for What we call work and process And do this on your way into work in the morning So when I used to drive and do to a base at Camp Pendleton on in, California The whip is going to be the number of cars You know in the queue so dependent you can what your constraint is Whether it’s you know a certain gate at the base, if you’re the grocery store, it could be a certain checkout stand But you’re constraining it then is going to be that one that has the most working process or the most Things that are being worked on, you know, maybe the most stuff in the inbox So you identify that constraint and then we have to figure out how are we going to exploit that systems good? At this point we don’t want to put any resources towards it But we’re going to try to get as much as we can out of the constraint without adding those resources. So whether Efficiency of a machine of a person so that they’re able to process something faster we exploit it The third step is we subordinate or we synchronize everything up, right? and we do that because if if we have various steps in our process in our constraint is only able to produce at a certain speed if The others are able to produce faster than what’s going to happen They’re just going to they’re going to be producing faster than the constraint stuffs. Just going to be piling up So again, it goes back to that overproduction that we talked about under lean So what we want to do is we want to subordinator synchronize everything else. So the Economic factors that slow step in our process and so then that slow step then B controls the output of our entire organization Step four is we would elevate? If we need to get to that point, we would elevate the system constraint by applying additional resources Maybe we needed another machine another worker Another shift whatever the case would be and Then at this point if we’re still not meeting our goal, we were to reevaluate And see whether we’re meeting our goal And if not, then we would go back to step one because we probably still have a constraint somewhere within our system so just a real quick example that kind of Shows what we’re talking about here. So this is actual a situation I used to have to come through the Naval Station at fall work every day on my way to work but our constraint in this scenario was if the entry gate They had two guards. That would be there checking IDs every morning. They did 100% ID check well There was a there was just a very short What we call buffer area that led up to those gate guards that were checking the IDs and you know people sometimes were like sheep That they just want to follow the car in front of them and that’s kind of what was happening And so, you know, the guy that was in charge of this process at the base He realized that and so he had this big sign printed up that said two lanes ahead pick one Well, you know, maybe that’ll fix it but it really didn’t I mean other than you know, I like the sign but the You know didn’t really do much to because people were still you know Acting like sheep and following that other person and so one of those gate guards there was checking IDs was often What we call starving the constraint was starving because it didn’t have anything to work on And again, keep in mind that your constraint controls your entire output and so through a Coordinated project with the base and the you know, the city etc. They came out with a solution which was to create an additional buffer So what they did was they were able to you know restart some pavement, etc And now they had this buffer area so that even if a lot of people felt like the car That there was enough time and enough space that those lanes would eventually fill up and and that constraint would never start But again going back to the five focusing steps your constraints sometimes moves. And so that’s kind of what happened in this situation where once it once the two lanes of vehicle got through the gate guards and Combined back down into one lane, then. It was a constraint again So again, you’d have to work through the process one more time and see if you could work that out So some best practices determine the goal. You know, what does it goal for your organization? Once you have your goal you five folks steps If you’re not meeting your goal to remember where your constraint might be in your process and to resolve that And then to continue doing that or repeating that process until you are actually able to meet your goal and then again just like it We spoke to within lean you want to make sure that you ask the sort of control plan in place to make sure Your process or your improvements that you made stay in place some industry leaders here for you Okay, another test three constraints is a the new way of getting people to work harder be strengthening the weakest link or the constraint so See a fancy scheduling tool meant to confuse workers or D adding extra inspections to improve quality It can’t be beat twice in a row can it yeah, I do that when I go to Vegas on the roulette wheel that I You know gotta be rip gotta reread, but then it’s green. I might dance. Okay good. So it was B All right, last but not least. We have Six Sigma And I don’t want to fight anybody here on afternoon so hopefully we’ll just hit the wave tops on this and uh You know, we’re not gonna be calculating a standard deviation or anything this afternoon unless you want to I’ll stay afterwards with Six Sigma in a nutshell is basically We want to make sure that we’re it were disciplined with it. But also I usually you know, it’s a dated derivative approach where we’re looking to eliminate eliminate defects within our process and driving towards a quality standard of Six Sigma, which is six standard deviations between our mean and our Specification limits, you know, I’ll show you a graph that kind of explains that here in just a minute But it’s a way to describe the quality of our process and how well we’re doing And we wanted the focus of Six Sigma is to reduce the variation Because variation is bad a process is repeatable and predictable So again, it utilizes standard creation, which is calculated mathematically calculated from your process And that’s at the heart of statistical process controller at what we call it SPC. So here’s what I was talking about before so everybody seen this before I You your back or maybe back in college? And so if you have a Six Sigma process, that means that you fix standard deviations again Those are calculate mathematically calculated from your process Between your mean which is the bar in them at all. Are your average and your Specification then you have a lower specification limit. You have an upper specification limit and depending on your process they can be anything from a You know, I want in six hours. I wanted lengths of between two and six feet whatever the case may be Those could be your specification limits. So if you have a Six Sigma process again you have 66 standard deviations on each side of your mean between your mean and your upper and lower specification limit and it’s equivalent to what we call three-point for deep BMO or defects per million opportunities and We’ll see kind of what that looks like here. I think on the next slide One thing to note is it some people sometimes get confused with control limits and specification limits Specification limits are determined by our customers and then control limits are constrictor mondai so again, the specification limits are determined by our Customer and then control limits are determined by our process So Six Sigma again we wanted the focus of that is to reduce the variation and then thereby reducing the number of defects in our process so that they become Statistically insignificant. Well, this is meant to represent is when you’re looking at your process the Preventing mistakes before they happen or before they get to the point where their defects it’s a lot cheaper to do that before they happen But as you go along the process if you catch it during the process at the end of the process or after the product has been released then it’s going to cost you a lot more money whether it’s resources such as Dollars whether it’s time, etc so what we want to do is we want to be able to Design our process and make sure that our process stays in Statistical control so that we don’t have to so it never gets to the point where a defect is just going after it’s released How was it started? Developed by Bill Smith and Bob Galvin from Motorola back in 1986. So it’s been about around about a little over 30 years I’m Jack Welsh if anybody remembers who that gentleman is from General Electric was an early adopter Made it part of his business strategy in 1995 required a good portion of his staff to be green belt trained And then I just throw up a book here that in case you’re interested or one a handy Kind of easy-to-follow reference from Michael. George is the Lean Six Sigma pocket tool book but it breaks down the you know, there’s a Multitude of tools within Lean Six Sigma or within Six Sigma and this basically breaks them all down in a nutshell So you don’t have to memorize all those? ok, so We talked about three point four defects per million opportunities a minute ago Again, that would be considered best in class or Six Sigma is best in class kind of give you an Example of what that might look like compared to how most people perform or what the average is of three sigma where most companies operate? somewhere between three and four sigma You see up here on the screen So if your if anybody out there is about to have a baby And you go to a three sigma hospital then About greater than forty thousand five hundred newborn babies are dropped in hospitals each year whereas a Six Sigma Hospital would be three newborn babies dropped in hospitals in a hundred years or if that Process was at a Six Sigma level Drinking water, you know, there’s certain certain places where you probably always want to have a Six Sigma process There’s probably some word. The view isn’t worth the climb or the cost to achieve that isn’t worth it So again Six Sigma is going to be the 3.4 D PMO or defects per million opportunities and Three Sigma is 2.3 defects per hundred opportunities. So again, a huge disparity or difference between those those two numbers Okay, so some some components of Six Sigma everything we do in CPI for the most part is about the customer again. The customers wanted to determine the quality But they also determine what their requirements are right their wants their needs your expectations And we need to be able to design our processes or improve our processes to deliver those wants needs and expectations I always like to throw in requirements because in our business for most of us, you know We’re mission funded to do certain things or to provide a certain level of service so a lot of times it boils down to requirements not only for the customer but perhaps voice of the business as well those requirements that the business has to meet has to make or has to meet We need to make sure our process is able to deliver those everything we do is a process all processes have variation It’s just you know kind of the the nature of the universe We have two different types of variation. We have common cause which is going to be always inherent your process Or it could be special cause where it’s assignable to some sort of event or actual cause So if you think about your commute to work in the morning, you know you leave your house at 7 o’clock every day you don’t always get to work for 7:30, right and Some of those reasons might be traffic might be the stoplights, etc. So that’s probably going to be common cause variation Whereas if the metros closed for a week, or the yellow line is closed for a week That’s probably going to be special cause or if there’s an accident Special cause we’re usually able to track that down to some sort of event and then we try to prevent that from occurring again Maybe we never read the Metro again. Maybe we you know We fly instead of drive so we don’t get in an accident At the bottom of the slide there on slide 38 you see some sources of variation. It can come from all over But this we have something called the 6ms, which our man method machine materials measurement mother nature Those are all inputs to your process as well If you think of any other m’s, let me know. But those probably cover almost everything that goes into your process And so if you have something that goes into your process, that’s the source of variation, right? So some of the principles of Six Sigma are that we want to figure out what that special cause variation is and we want to isolate it and Prevent it from happening again We want to figure out or get to what we call the root cause of the problem and once we have that done and we can Reduce our common cause variation by improving or changing our process. So maybe you take a different way to work Maybe you leave it a different time whatever the case may be And we should all be able to anticipate this variation and design our processes to deal with that or to it You know expect that that’s going to occur If we only have common cause variation in our process that’s said to be stable and predictable and that’s what we want right We want to be able to make predictions based on that process What you see up here is an example of a control chart. And again, that’s the basis of Six Sigma and statistical process could process control is that You use the control chart in order to be able to monitor your process and make sure that your process stays in what we call in control and so again you have a It basically starts off with what we call a run chart where you’re just plotting your data So maybe your first item was? Your first item came in a hundred point five there your second item came in at a hundred and two point five That could be minutes. It could be dollars. It could be you know time whatever the case may be And then you calculate your control limits again statistically based on your standard deviation You go up three from your mean or down three from your mean and those are your upper upper and lower control limits you want to make sure for the most part your process stays within those control limits if you have a Point like you see there where your process is out of the control limit. It looks like on your fifth shot or your fifth item Then you you probably have something going on in your process and you need to stop Take a look at it and bring it back into control. So Six Sigma hat. So how to do it again So if we have a process that has a normal distribution or has that bell curve that we talked about? Then we know certain things about it We know that a certain number of our data points are going to fall under under our curve there again Probably a little bit heavy for a Friday afternoon before Christmas but The main takeaway is that if we know if we know how our process is going to perform Then we can use that to our advantage to start making predictions in the future with Six Sigma We follow a road map called to Mayock which is our problem-solving framework where we define the problem measure it Analyze it improve it and then control it just a couple of real quick best practices on Six Sigma you want to make sure that when you’re looking at your process that very little of your Process variation is introduced from your measurement system we call that and you would to do something called a measurement system analysis and Probably the biggest advice I can give to anybody is that common sense goes a long way You know when you’re looking at your process not only with lean three constraints but Six Sigma as well If it doesn’t seem right to you, then it probably isn’t and you would need to take it a little bit deeper dive on that some industry leaders for Six Sigma out there and our last test of the day so Six Sigma is what pick one a new way of using metrics to blame workers a war on variation complicated statistics meant to confuse workers Adding extra inspections to improve quality Yes. Yeah be again good so it’s a war on variation, right? We’re trying to reduce the variation in our process because we want a process that’s predictable Okay, so in summary this site I’ll let you guys look at this as your time permits But basically just shows you some of the the achievements that we’ve made within the DoD and you Marine Corps You know, whether it’s inspections, whether it’s you know, the check-in checkout process and reducing the cycle time, you know It applies to pretty much any process you would have within your organization Whether it’s reducing the need for Manning You know These are proven tools and methodologies that that if applied properly and with some a little bit of rigor and discipline can provide some some very substantial results for your organization So again lean is about removing the waste from our process if we do that improves our cycle time and it reduces the cost theory constraints about reducing the constraints or mitigating those constraints but very similar outcomes of Improved process throughput so we’re getting things through faster and it’s reducing the cost of that process as well and then Six Sigma statistically Statistically based on our statistical process control and Make sure we’re looking at trying to reduce the variation and therefore the defects within our process so that it is reliable and predictable Okay, yeah we’re probably out of time for questions, but You might have any questions it why why me There are a couple questions from online but in the room, is there anyone that has any questions Please use our microphone if you do have a question How does Lean Six Sigma compared to Demmings total quality management Da so if you flip to the back up slides there There’s a kind of a there’s a big arrow that shows the progression of CPI or process improvement within the Marine Corps But it starts off the the lower end of the arrows starts off with tql tqey TQM I think a lot of the tools, you know again, some of these tools have been around for quite some time You know lean going way back to the 1900s. A lot of them are just packaged differently maybe with more of a tql TQM from what I really wasn’t around at that time, but the It was more of a cultural way that they Enacted it. So, you know, it kind of died a natural death early on And so with CPR either trying to do a little bit differently so that we have self sustainment within the Marine Corps And so that it changes the culture but as you can imagine it’s you know It’s easier said than done to change the culture, you know a lot of organizations let alone the one that’s been around for, you know hundreds and hundreds of years and you know It’s steeped in tradition like the Marine Corps So, you know we’re so getting to that cultural institutionalization that you see out there at 2015 You know, we’re supposed to got there’s three years ago, but I’m not sure we’re quite there yet But very similar methodologies tools probably very similar approaches very similar Your system for whatever reason one You know that one kind of died died along with the dinosaurs Constraint how do you identify? That constraint if the goal is simply unrealistic Well, you’re still gonna have you still identify the constraint the same way the it’s going to be you know If you walk around whether it’s an office, whether it’s a production area It’s still going to be that area that has the most what we call work in process So you’re visually going to look for that stuff, you know Whether it’s the person that has the most record books in their inbox, you know Whether it’s the machine that has the most work sitting in front of it So what you’re you can you can run your numbers? but that’s probably the easiest way to take a look at it is to Visually look for that within your organization or within your process and see you know Where is the most backup occurring and that’s usually going to be your constraint? Yeah, so there’s a whole bunch of resources that we we put in the slide deck and then an exercise as well But we’ll touch on the exercise kind of as a follow-up, but you know Maybe just start taking a look at you know, your processes and you know from here, you know starting today You’ll put me maybe you look at things a little bit differently. You’ll start seeing waste You’ll start seeing you know, Tim. Would you everywhere you go You start dreaming about it You’ll start seeing constraints. You’ll start seeing where that whip is that is piling up where you have defects or poor quality You know, whether it’s at home whether it’s at work at school or other but maybe you know Take some time to think about those and you know while you’re standing in line at the grocery store you get behind the constraint You know and we’ll we’ll come out with a day to call and see what you ask Maybe you guys to submit some of those so some of the resources again One thing I just wanted to point out real quick on slide 55. This is Directly related to what you guys through the the the previous presentation you had last month. I believe it was When you talked about the ecq’s the core qualifications for SES But it’s directly related to results driven process and quality improvement and then program evaluation so again, they’re you know for senior executives or look to have this sort of thing within their skill set Again, so the resources starting on slide 56 federal improvement team You know, I found out about this program here through the listservs. So again, those are great sources of Resources that are available to you there’s the pic or the which is the performance improvement council through Gao I mean GSA And then just a whole whole host of other ones, but I’ll make sure that my contact information gets sent out as well so if anybody has any follow-up questions They more than welcome to send those to me and I’m weren’t happy to respond and my apologies for going slightly over today but a lot of information in a short period of time so With that. I wish everybody a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year and thank you for your time today

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